M'n liefste bezit. Because Herzogenbusch was not liberated by Allied forces—it was evacuated before their arrival—its prisoners were not in the position to get hold of camp records and take them home. The building of a camp at Herzogenbusch, a German micturate for 's-Hertogenbosch, started in 1942. As far as the archival situation is concerned, a serious drawback is the fact that none of the three camp commandants was tried in the Netherlands. Camp Vught (Herzogenbusch concentration camp) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. About 60 percent of the prisoners were released; the rest were transported to different concentration camps in Germany. The general conclusion of the survey was that the local population had a basic knowledge of the camp and that the people of Vught were apparently involved in the fate of the prisoners. Moreover, the regime in Herzogenbusch obviously did not show itself as cruel as was the case elsewhere. [2], Due to hunger, sickness, and abuse, at least 749 men, women and children died there. At some points, the camp showed an even more deadly face. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. Covers. Today there is a visitors' centre which includes exhibitions and a memorial Nationaal Monument Kamp … The second group did not enter the camp before October 1943. Imprisonment in Herzogenbusch distinguished itself not only in quantitative but also in qualitative terms. History. In the camouflaged language of the Germans it was at that time “appropriately” called the Jewish collection camp (Judenauffanglager), suggesting the possibility of a longer stay than in Westerbork, as a Judendurchgangslager. Grunewald was arrested and sentenced by an SS court in the Netherlands to three and a half years’ imprisonment. Among them was the Herzogenbusch main camp (also known as Vught). Vol 1, Early Camps, Youth Camps, and Concentration Camps and Subcamps under the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA), ed. The SS leadership was satisfied with his performance. Herzogenbusch concentration camp Upload media Wikipedia: Instance of: Nazi concentration camp, military museum, Ilag: Named after 's-Hertogenbosch ; Vught ; Location: Vught, North Brabant, Netherlands : Said to be the same as: Vught: 51° 39′ 56.99″ N, 5° 15′ 24.01″ E: Authority control Q153713 GND ID: 4028140-1 NKCR AUT ID: zmp2018978407. The main camp, the Schutzhaftlager, was in operation throughout Herzogenbusch’s existence. Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. In August 1943, as a result of deportations from the Judendurchgangslager, space became vacant for a new camp: the Polizeiliches Durchgangslager, which thus mirrored the original function of the Amersfoort camp. Herzogenbusch concentration camp was located in Vught in the province of North Brabant, near recreational lake De IJzeren Man. The first camp commandant was SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Karl Walter Chmielewski, who previously served in Sachsenhausen. (Arolsen, 1979), 1:154–157. Herzogenbusch was a transit camp; people were not supposed to stay in it for a long time. 749 prisoners died in the camp, … The family was later tranported to the Groß-Rosen camp (Langenbielau). The crematorium, the fence and a ditch dug by the prisoners are all authentic. The Herzogenbusch concentration camp was the only SS concentration camp outside Germany and the German annexed territories. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933-1945. The immediate cause for this change was the massive overflow of prisoners under investigation (Untersuchungshäftlinge), whose number was far too large to be put up in the prisons of the German police. Detachments where prisoners constructed and repaired airfields (Arnheim, Eindhoven, GilzeRijen [aka Breda], Leeuwarden, and Venlo); Detachments where prisoners worked on coastal defenses (Moerdijk and Roosendaal); Detachments where prisoners performed administrativework on behalf of the Befehlshaber der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD (’s-Gravenhage, Haaren, and St. Michielsgestel); One detachment where prisoners were deployed for industrial labor (Herzogenbusch). The first commandant of the camp was SS captain Karl Chmilewski, who was well known for the atrocities he had committed at Gusen, a subcamp of Mauthausen. Set up in early 1943, it was essentially a transit camp for Dutch Jews, who were worked in slave-labour projects and then shipped east to the extermination A substantial food shortage, the prisoners’ poor condition, hard working conditions, and systematic battering of a certain group of Jewish inmates caused the death of 400 prisoners. Ulrich Herbert, Karin Orth, and Christoph Dieckmann (Gottingen, 1998), 1: 327–348. 250g (Vught I); Coll. The museum consists of an indoor and an outdoor area. On the bunker and the crematorium, see the testimony of former prisoner Wibaut- Guilonard, Kamp Vught 1943–1944: Bunker en krematorium (Amsterdam, 1992). Still, parts of the old camp remain. Herzogenbusch, located in The Netherlands, was the only official concentration camp in western Europe located outside of Germany. Goodbye. Washington, DC 20024-2126 In general, it can be stated that because of the food supply and working conditions, life in the Hauptlager was less difficult than in the subcamps. On 2 June 1944 he and his family were transported by train to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Most of the prisoners were in terrible shape. The following collections in NIOD contain information about this camp: Coll. In the summer of 1942, only a few weeks after the first deportation train had left the Jewish transit camp (Judendurchgangslager) at Westerbork for Auschwitz on June 15, Höherer-SS und Polizeiführer (HSSPF) Hanns Albin Rauter, in consultation with Reichskommissar Arthur Seyss-Inquart, decided to start construction of a new camp called Herzogenbusch (’s-Hertogenbosch). It did not stop them from being transported, but actually did protect them during their deportation to Auschwitz. Information about the opening and closing dates of the main camp and subcamps, the type of prisoners, and prisoner labor can be found in the ITS, Verzeichnis der Haftstätten unter dem Reichsführer- SS (1933–1945), 2 vols. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. The second commander was 40-year-old Adam Grünewald. After her last diary entry, in early July 1943, Helga Deen was deported to Sobibór extermination camp and murdered. In this speech, about the specificc qualities of the SS, he did not refrain from calling the camp “an exemplary SS operation” (Musterbetrieb der SS).4. Eventually they reached Vught, and liberated the Herzogenbusch concentration camp with the assistance of a Canadian artillery unit - the only Konzentrationslager or concentration camp ever to be built on Dutch soil. Although certainly not as tough as his predecessors, Huttig was said to have exerted power from behind his desk. Consequently, their penal records are absent. . His diary is published as Dagboek geschreven in Vught (Amsterdam, 1977). Maar erdoor komen we. His superiors, unhappy that this tragedy was leaked to the press, brought him before an SS judge and he was sent to the Russian front as a common soldier. The camp was opened in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. Herzogenbusch became known as one of the few concentration camps located outside the Reich territory (Reichsgebiet). Even more important, they hoped that this protection would safeguard them against deportation. Because of the trial’s importance, its complete text was published in 1952. Architectural model illustrates the size of the camp premises were liberated on October 26 1944... The dismissal of two camp commandants, a German micturate for 's-Hertogenbosch, started in 1942, Huttig said... He wrote a diary, which were of course of great help and comfort for the prisoners transferred. 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