Decisions on what the next step should be are based on correctness, and this is decided in terms of absolute norms such as truth, justice, or beauty, which change only slowly. To do this, however, it is again easiest to contrast different poles of thinking—equivalent to the divergent versus convergent contrast. Having no known solutions and require the thinking of new approaches to solve them. Divergent thinking can be a useful metatheory, however, because it suggests the possibility of domain-specific divergent-thinking skills that matter in many domains, including skills that can be promoted using certain techniques. Divergent thinking is more than thinking outside the box; it’s thinking without the box, and imposing structure later. On the contrary, convergent thinking dictates that there must be a certain answer with the highest value. Divergent thinking/doing tests are scored in terms of fluency (number of ideas/motor solutions), flexibility (number of categories, mutually exclusive, encompassing ideas/motor solutions), and originality (uniqueness or infrequency of ideas, or overall evaluation of motor solutions by at least two independents judges). Divergent thinking (DT) is an important constituent of creativity that captures aspects of fluency and originality. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/jps/vol8/iss1/2, Home | These neuropsychological results have been corroborated with fMRI data. Guilford also suggested that creativity can be studied objectively. Although I will deal with some other specific features of convergent thinking later in this chapter, I want to discuss some other kinds of thinking that are associated with the generation of variability and novelty. 11 Moreover, to generate the best solution, individuals must use divergent thinking to overcome functional fixation. Pretend play relates to and facilitates processes—divergent thinking, insight, imagination, and affect expression—relevant to creativity and creative problem solving (Dansky 1980; Fisher 1992; Moore and Russ 2008; Russ and Grossman-McKee 1990). And some places encourage creativity more than others. So now that you know about three different types of creativity, insight, convergent thinking, and divergent thinking, you might think that the brain processes must be complicated. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. Recently, Andreas Fink, Aljoscha Neubauer and colleagues have employed the Alternate Uses Test to study brain activity using EEG and fMRI in the same study design. As children learn to … Divergent thinking is also loosely called ‘lateral thinking’, a term coined by the thinking guru Edward De Bono – author of ‘Six Thinking Hats’. Alfred Binet, for example, who developed the immediate precursor to IQ around the turn of the century, included an open-ended similarities task not unlike those found on modern-day divergent thinking tests (Binet & Simon 1905). It is closely associated with spontaneity, random thoughts, non-conformity, creativity and thinking “out-of-the-box”. Second, as subjects generate and evaluate hypotheses, they need to keep track of successful and unsuccessful attempts. The Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS) was also administered (Runco, Plucker, & Lim, 2000–2001). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Analogical thinking or problem solving, being understood as the use of like problems solutions in guiding solutions of new problems (Goldstein, 2010). Almost all multiple choice tests that assess reasoning rather than knowledge require the person taking the test to use convergent reasoning. They also showed that a divergent thinking test used with the openness test has validity when workplace criteria are used. insight and divergent thinking capacities from adoles-cence to adulthood. To explore this hypothesis, we administered a verbal insight task (riddles) and a divergent thinking task (verbal fluency) to 16 native English speakers and 16 non-native English speakers after they underwent Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of the left middle temporal gyrus and right temporo- parietal junction. "Differential Modulation of Performance in Insight and Divergent Thinking Tasks with tDCS," FAQ | Iss. Visual and verbal divergent thinking can also be scored in terms of elaboration (numbers of details provided along with the ideas). This kind of thinking is able to unite apparently conflicting or mutually exclusive ideas by bringing them into the same cognitive space, thus producing novelty. This … About | Thinking & Reasoning, 23 (3) (2017), pp. David H. Cropley, in Creativity in Engineering, 2015. For example, the fact that a paper clip consists of metal could be emphasized in order to see it as a device for conducting an electric current. Heilman, in Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Second Edition), 2012. Unlike conventional thinking, which is strictly sequential in nature and follows a set of logical steps, lateral thinking involves detours or sidesteps. Although researchers still debate whether or not divergent thinking is necessary and sufficient for creativity, what is clear is that divergent thinking is a unique capacity that contributes to many forms of creativity. Four experimental groups; high versus low transformational leadership, and anonymous versus identified groups conditions, were compared with respect to fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. Course design includes the length of a creativity course, the types of practice opportunities trainees are given (if any), and how the different training sessions are scheduled (i.e., massed versus distributed). Convergent thinking is typically defined as cognition which moves toward a single correct answer whereas in divergent thinking cognition moves in multiple directions making new, original possibilities more likely—the reason measures of it are often used to assess creativity. Evidence bearing on the effectiveness of this program can be found in Reese, Parnes, Treffinger, and Kaltsounis in 1976 and Basadur, Graen, and Green in 1982. Another classic divergent thinking task is Match Problems. Selcuk Acar, Mark A. Runco, in Handbook of Organizational Creativity, 2012. The problem-solving approach to creativity spawned a well-known training program called the Creative Problem-Solving program. Divergent thinking, which is closely associated with creativity and the ability to conjure a multitude of potential solutions, can be enhanced through the use of analogical thinking. Here are sample items from Binet and Simon’s (1905) first test of intelligence. A matchbox can be regarded as a nonconductor with movable parts. Furthermore, set shifts are facilitated by mental representations of the start state that are more abstract and ambiguous than the one provided in the problem statement. When EEG data were analyzed along the lower (8–12 Hz) and upper (10–12 Hz) alpha frequencies, the results demonstrated that the generation of unusual uses in the context of the Alternate Uses Test is associated with greater alpha synchronization in lower and upper bands compared to a task in which subjects were instructed to think of typical characteristics of conventional everyday objects. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. It is true that there are an infinite number of ways that passengers could be carried, but achieving a practical solution dictates that many of these will be rejected during the stage of convergent analysis that follows our divergent synthesis. Divergent thinking, or lateral thinking, is about generating multiple creative solutions to the same problem. 235-258, 10 .7771/1932-6246.1183. Anonymity condition yielded higher scores than identified condition in flexibility scores. Novelty of divergent and convergent thinking; Divergence focuses on unique ideas or original products while convergence considers the utilization of previous techniques. Of course, this system is highly vulnerable to error, … Of course, these three explanations are not mutually exclusive, and possibly all contribute to divergent production. 1 Divergent thinking, also referred to as lateral thinking, is the process of creating multiple, unique ideas or solutions related to a problem that you are trying to solve. Thus, creativity involves tertiary process thinking in which primary and secondary process thinking are combined to yield effective novelty. M.A. Mumford, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. However, predictably, a different picture emerged from fMRI data. Some Match Problems allow the generation of multiple solutions to the same problem. The literature lacks multivariate studies that report relationships between DTand its aspects with relevant covariates, such as cognitive abilities, personality traits (e.g. Basadur, Graen, and Green stated that engineers in an industrial organization showing significant improvements in problem finding and problem-solving immediately after training and this finding held 2 weeks later on work related measures. Following Markovitz (2013), firstly, an initial global level of divergent thinking sets the degree of abstraction of the procedure used to generate alternatives, which in turn defines the nature of the categories accessed. With this in mind Sosik, Kahai, and Avolio (1998) investigated the relationship between transformational leadership and anonymity, and divergent thinking. Divergent thinking may play several roles in organizations. We found that, in the case of the insight task the depolarization of right temporo-parietal junction and hyperpolarization of left middle temporal gyrus resulted in increased performance, relative to both the control condition and the reverse stimulation condition in both groups (non-native > native speakers). Imitation mini-trombone 5. Delivery media includes the types of materials that were used to convey material during the course. ... “If you are looking for someone to do things different and achieve the required by thinking on their feet, I am often reminded of my experience with Divergent team. > Divergent Insights: We help turn Fortune! The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. Specifically, whereas low-creativity subjects exhibited low EEG alpha on all three tasks, high-creative subjects exhibited high EEG alpha only during work on the Alternate Uses Test. Greater alpha synchronization was especially prevalent in frontal areas of the brain. Hold papers together 2. However, in the case of the divergent thinking task, the same pattern of stimulation resulted in a decrease in performance, compared to the reverse stimulation condition, in the non-native speakers. Goel, Vinod; Eimontaite, Iveta; Goel, Amit; and Schindler, Igor Specifically, Vinod Goel and Oshin Vartanian have shown that whereas engagement in Match Problems was associated with activation in left dorsal lateral PFC and right ventral lateral PFC, the latter structure was activated exclusively when subjects successfully solved problems that required set shifting. It’s a straight forward process that focuses on figuring out the most effective answer to a problem. Convergent thinking was further broken down into verbal intelligence and working memory, which also predicted insight independently of each other and of divergent thinking … The 25–30‐year‐olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. Recent research has used neuroscientific methods to study originality, novelty, insight, divergent thinking, and other processes related to creative mental activity. All ideas are valid for idea stimulation in divergent thinking. Neuroimaging studies of this paradigm also indicate no reliable changes above and beyond diffuse prefrontal activation. This linear thinking produces a new way of thinking that can provide new ideas and solutions. On divergent thinking in the visuo-spatial domain, however, only 15/16-year-olds … They also used some other measures, including a test of intelligence and openness. Pretend play relates to and facilitates processes—divergent thinking, insight, imagination, and affect expression—relevant to creativity and creative problem solving (Dansky 1980; Fisher 1992; Moore and Russ 2008; Russ and Grossman-McKee 1990). However, it is clear is that a person's productivity is an important aspect of their creative performance and should be included in an examination of the effectiveness of creativity training. No age‐group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. They broadly fall into 3 categories: divergent thinking, artistic creativity, and insight. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. Presumably, homospatial thinking is the opposite of heterospatial thinking—which keeps ideas locked away from each other in separate spaces. According to him, there are two ways to find a solution. It involves breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about the various aspects of the topic. In contrast to divergent thinking, convergent thinking involves seeing–recognizing the similarity or the commonality of phenomena that appear to be different or combining and joining two or more different observations or ideas together so that they provide additional information, for example, putting the pieces of a puzzle together so they make a complete picture. That improv causes increases in divergent thinking (Lewis & Lovatt, 2013) helps explain the success of improv in creative fields such as business and entrepreneurship (Lubart, 2016). It usually happens in a free-flowing, spontaneous manner, where multiple creative ideas are engendered and evaluated. The reasons for rejecting solution options in the engineering design process may range from cost (a solution is too expensive) and technical feasibility (a solution is impossible to implement) to safety (a solution is demonstrably unsafe) and risk (a solution poses an unacceptably high likelihood of a serious negative outcome). Cufflinks 3. Edward De Bono’s concept of Lateral Thinking falls into this area. Edward … Libraries > The criterion involved a measure of global change and incremental criteria and a measure of general managerial creativity, both measures were domain specific. Divergent thinking The ability to think out of the box is divergent thinking. Divergent thinking: As discussed already, divergent thinking is actually a collection of unrelated skills that merely look similar at an abstract level. One benefit of using performance as a criterion for creativity is that performance is ultimately the outcome of primary concern in real-world settings. This program was developed by Sidney Parnes and colleagues during the 1970s and presents trainees with six stages of creative problem-solving. The participants were entrepreneurs who started different numbers of businesses. No age-group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. The information and ideas obtained as a result of divergent thinking can be structured using convergent thinking to produce a single most effective answer. Course delivery includes variables such as how long the training lasts, the amount of lecture used, the amount of practice time given to trainees, the nature of the practice exercises, the amount of feedback provided to trainees, as well as other variables related to how the instructor communicated material to trainees in order to facilitate learning the content incorporated into the course. The goal of the course designers was to enhance the fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration of trainees’ responses during creative thought. IQ tests typically assume that there is one general intelligence (or g) that underlies every intelligent act—every single one. Analogical thinking or problem solving, being understood as the use of like problems solutions in guiding solutions of new problems (Goldstein, 2010). Divergent thinking, which is closely associated with creativity and the ability to conjure a multitude of potential solutions, can be enhanced through the use of analogical thinking. Regardless of the test considered, the rudimentary idea is that abstraction is necessary to generate different and original alternatives belonging to mutually exclusive categories. Accessibility Statement. As expected, the transformational leadership group was more flexible and fluent than the transactional group; and also nominal groups were superior to real groups in those regards. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to changes in brain activity when individuals perform divergent thinking tasks. Divergent thinking explores various outward directions that can possibly lead to a solution whereas convergent thinking is quite linear and inwardly centers on the strongest solution. Additionally, the theoretical framework a course designer used in developing the course is likely to have a pervasive influence on all four of these factors. Trainees then completed a set of exercises to practice the techniques they learned during training. Divergent and convergent thinking are two complementary methods to explore ideas, work towards goals, and address challenges. It is not enough to encourage diverse thinking – when you see a load of other white, middle-aged professionals around the table, you will likely suggest solutions that will find approval with your audience. Researchers believe that you can kickstart divergent thinking with the three B’s: bed, bath, and the bus. This deficit has been attributed to the role of the right frontal region in permitting flexible strategy shifts. The current study A set of creativity tasks was administered to early (12⁄13 yrs), middle (15⁄16 yrs) and late adolescents (18⁄19 yrs) as well as adults (25–30 yrs). 1 (2015), Differential Modulation of Performance in Insight and Divergent Thinking Tasks with tDCS, Vinod Goel, York University, University of Hull, IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale San CamilloFollow On a cognitive level, one would expect a positive correlation between the number of hypotheses generated and the demand on monitoring resources and relations. The 25-30-year-olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is relevant here because it reflects the ability to generate many solutions to a problem or prompt (i.e., fluency). 8 However, assuming creativity is needed, and given that this article is focused on promoting creativity through training, it is valid to consider the degree to which creativity training helps people become more accepting of creative ideas. This represents a more extensive description of the processes contributing to creative thought than divergent thinking alone. Mark A. Runco, in Creativity (Second Edition), 2014. These six stages include mess finding, problem finding, information finding, idea finding, solution finding, and acceptance finding. Researchers believe that you can kickstart divergent thinking with the three B’s: bed, bath, and the bus. Divergent thinking, on the other hand, is a more freeflowing process of generating as many possibilities as possible from a common theme. 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Bath, and the lowest was identified in low transformational leadership and anonymity for flexibility a of! Is, how it happens, when it is again easiest to contrast different poles of thinking—equivalent to same!