{ bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, [129], During the three decades following independence from the French Mandate, "various internal tensions inherent to the Lebanese system and multiple regional developments collectively contributed to the breakdown of governmental authority and the outbreak of civil strife in 1975”. Syria's conflict has profoundly changed mechanisms of inter-sectarian mobilization in Lebanon: interest-based and “political” modes of mobilization are being transformed into identity-based and “religious” modes. (loyalty to a sect) sectarismo nm nombre masculino: Sustantivo de género exclusivamente masculino, que lleva los artículos el o un en singular, y los … Add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets. } { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, Perceptions of existential threat exist among both the Shiite and Sunni communities throughout Lebanon: the continuation of the Syrian conflict will likely increase these perceptions over time and cause terrorism. The conflict was primarily fought over the existence of the Northern Irish state rather than religion, though sectarian relations within Northern Ireland fueled the conflict. The National Pact served to reinforce the sectarian system that had begun under the French Mandate, by formalizing the confessional distribution of the highest public offices and top administrative ranks according to the proportional distribution of the dominant sects within the population. window.ga=window.ga||function(){(ga.q=ga.q||[]).push(arguments)};ga.l=+new Date; [95][99][101] Violent non-state actors Al-Qaeda, Ansar al-Sharia and Daesh, particularly active in southern cities like Mukalla, fuel sectarian tendencies with their animosity towards Yemen's Isma'ilis, Zaydis, and others. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_mobile_flex' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [160, 600] }}, (sekˈtɛəriəˌnɪzəm) noun. A valid example is the suppression of religious minorities like the Sunnis and Baha-ís. At other times, sectarianism may be the expression of a group's nationalistic or cultural ambitions, or exploited by demagogues. [106] During his decades long reign as head of state, he used Sa'dah's Salafist's ideological dissemination against Zaydi's Islamic revival advocacy. Prior to John F. Kennedy, only one Catholic (Al Smith) had ever been a major party presidential nominee, and he had been solidly defeated largely because of claims based on his Catholicism. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [320, 50] }}, }; [2] Therefore, the process of sectarianization, the mobilization and politicization of sectarian identities, is a political tool for authoritarian regimes to perpetuate their power and justify violence. {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, Following the civil war, the Sunnis have complained of discrimination by Iraq's Shia majority governments, which is bolstered by the news that Sunni detainees were allegedly discovered to have been tortured in a compound used by government forces on November 15, 2005. var mapping_houseslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([963, 0], []).addSize([0, 0], [300, 250]).build(); [109][107][108], Following the Arab Spring and the Yemeni Revolution, Ali Abdullah Saleh was forced to step down as president in 2012. In 1990, with the Taif Agreement, the constitution was revised but did not structurally change aspects relating to political sectarianism. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, The Galle Road that hugs the coast from Colombo veers inland just ahead of the town and forms the divide. iasLog("setting page_url: - https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/sectarianism"); Sunni Muslims in the Kalutara district are split in two different sub groups. if(!isPlusPopupShown()) Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. This was viewed by many Sunny Muslims as an act of treason, which made them link al-Assad's actions to his Alawite identity. The Alawites were originally settled in the highlands of Northwest Syria, but since the twentieth century have spread to places like Latakia, Homs and Damascus. window.__tcfapi('addEventListener', 2, function(tcData, success) { var dfpSlots = {}; { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [120, 600] }}, [58] Several assassinations were carried out by the Muslim Brothers, mostly against Alawites, but also against some Sunni Muslims. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, ‘But, after the earliest period, sectarian denominations became less and less important.’. [65], In addition to local forces, the role of external actors in the conflict in general as well as the sectarian aspect of the conflict should not be overlooked. to spend all your time and energy doing or feeling something, Pompous and patronizing (Describing character, part 5), Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. type: "html5", This ratio was to be applied to all highest-level public and administrative offices, such as ministers and directors. googletag.pubads().disableInitialLoad(); Sectarianism, Religious the common designation for various religious groups, communities, and societies that separated from and are opposed to the prevailing currents in Buddhism, Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and … { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot2_flex' }}, googletag.pubads().enableSingleRequest(); People often want to translate English words or phrases into Urdu. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776160', position: 'atf' }}, Ireland was deeply scarred by religious sectarianism following the Protestant Reformation as tensions between the native Catholic Irish and Protestant settlers from Britain led to massacres and attempts at ethnic cleaning by both sides during the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Irish Rebellion of 1798 and the Home Rule Crisis of 1912. [29] The monarchial power balance during the Safavid ere changed every few years, resulting in a changing limit of power of the clergies. 27. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, sectarianism. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, [126] The symbiosis of Ottoman modernization (through a variety of reforms) and indigenous traditions and practices became paramount in reshaping the political self-definition of each community along religious lines. "login": { { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [160, 600] }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446382' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '705055' }}, In doing so, General Aoun internationalized the Lebanese crisis by “emphasized the destructive role of the Syrian army in the country”. This caused the non-Muslims to gain privileges and influence. Find more ways to say sectarianism, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. The synonyms and antonyms of Sectarianism are listed below. [69][70][71][72] Most political forces in Yemen are primarily characterized by regional interests and not by religious sectarianism. [83], According to Lisa Wedeen, the perceived sectarian rivalry between Sunnis and Shias in the Muslim world is not the same as Yemen's sectarian rivalry between Salafists and Houthis. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [160, 600] }}, Definition of sectarianism in the Definitions.net dictionary. For background on Syria-Lebanon relations, see Lebanon-Syria relations. iasLog("exclusion label : resp"); { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, It may also refer to general philosophical, political disparity between different schools of thought such as that between Shia and Sunni Muslims. Sectarianism is a form of prejudice, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group. [95] Yemen's Salafists attacked the Zaydi Mosque of Razih in Sa’dah and destroyed tombs of Zaydi imams across Yemen. Probably the best-k… In March 1989, Prime Minister (and Acting President) General Michel Aoun launched a “liberation war” against the Syrian army with the backing of the PLO and Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 250] }}, [132] His decision resulted in multilateral negotiations as well as efforts to strengthen the role of the UN. name: "_pubcid", There are others who say Wahabism's rigidity has led it to misinterpret and distort Islam, pointing to the Taliban as well as Osama bin Laden. [2] In the past and present, religious identities have been politicized and mobilized by state actors inside and outside of the Middle East in pursuit of political gain and power. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, Historically, some Catholic countries once persecuted Protestants as heretics. sectarianism - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. var mapping_topslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[728, 90]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); [4] As Nader Hashemi asserts: The U.S. invasion of Iraq; the support of various Western governments for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which commits war crime upon war crime in Yemen and disseminates poisonous sectarian propaganda throughout the Sunni world; not to mention longstanding Western support for highly repressive dictators who manipulate sectarian fears and anxieties as a strategy of control and regime survival – the "ancient hatreds" narrative [between Sunnis and Shi’as] washes this all away and lays the blame for the regionʹs problems on supposedly trans-historical religious passions. iasLog("criterion : cdo_dc = english"); { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, var pbjs = pbjs || {}; Translation for 'sectarian' in the free English-Swedish dictionary and many other Swedish translations. The English sociologist Roy Wallis argues that a sect is characterized by "epistemological authoritarianism": sects possess some authoritative locus for the legitimate attribution of heresy. const customGranularity = { Dictionary English-German. userSync: { [50] These developments caused new social classes to emerge, consisting of mainly Christians, Druzes and Jews. [95][96] However, Yemen's northern part is still home to the powerful tribal confederations of Bakil and Hashid. Soleimani's death has not ended Iran's political, sectarian and regional ambitions. In addition to it, the knowledge about the origin, pronunciation, and synonyms of a word allows them to find similar words or phrases. [42] Soleimani was responsible for strengthening Iran's ties with foreign powers such as Hezbollah in Lebanon, Syria's al-Assad and Shia militia groups in Iraq. It is written as Sampradāyvād in Roman Hindi. name: "idl_env", [95][100][99], Ali Abdullah Saleh is a Zaydi from the Hashid's Sanhan clan and founder of the nationalist party General People's Congress. As the conflict grows more intense, the more the sectarian competition is internalized and viewed as a zero-sum game. [126], Christians began setting up armed militias what they “saw as an attempt by the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) to seize Lebanon – those militias would be united under the Lebanese Forces umbrella in 1976”. Sectarianism in Syria (Survey Study), The Day After, 2016. Learn more. [30] The 1906 constitutional revolution involved both constitutionalist and anti-constitutionalist clergy leaders. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_pc", "dictionary"); [6] Sectarianism arose from the confrontation between European colonialism and the Ottoman Empire and was used to mobilize religious identities for political and social purposes. if(success && (tcData.eventStatus === 'useractioncomplete' || tcData.eventStatus === 'tcloaded')) { You can complete the definition of sectarianism given by the English Definition dictionary with other English dictionaries: Wikipedia, Lexilogos, Oxford, Cambridge, Chambers Harrap, Wordreference, Collins Lexibase … } { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, [58] The Muslim Brothers, a part of the Sunni Muslims, used those tensions towards the Alawites as a tool to boost their political agenda and plans. Lebanon gained independence on 22 November 1943. [26] The establishment of Shiism as an official government ideology opened the doors for clergies to benefit from new cultural, political and religious rights which were denied prior to the Safavid ruling. This was followed by a rise of anti-Shi’a sentiments across the region and a deterioration of Shi'a-Sunni relations, impelled by funds from the Gulf states. [63] However, this does not mean that the conflict is solely or primarily a sectarian conflict, as there were also socio-economic factors at play. Sectarianism definition, sectarian spirit or tendencies; excessive devotion to a particular sect, especially in religion. ga('send', 'pageview'); Add sectarianism to one of your lists below, or create a new one. [95] These tribal confederations maintain their own institutions without state interference, such as prisons, courts, and armed forces. See more. Excessive attachment to a particular sect or party, especially in religion. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 250] }}, Rather, historians have argued that the origins of sectarianism lay at the "intersection of nineteenth-century European colonialism and Ottoman modernization". Wherever people of different religions live in close proximity to each other, religious sectarianism can often be found in varying forms and degrees. His divide-and-rule strategy contributed to the hostilities between the Druze and Maronite community, by arming the Maronite Christians. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_mobile_flex' }}, Sectarianism is a form of prejudice, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, His usage of Shia martyrdom led to the creation of a national consensus. Non-sectarians espouse that free association and tolerance of different beliefs are the cornerstone to successful peaceful human interaction. "authorizationTimeout": 10000 However, religion is commonly used as a marker to differentiate the two sides of the community. var pbAdUnits = getPrebidSlots(curResolution); { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, [39] By using religion as an instrument, Iran has expanded its authority to neighbouring countries. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '19042093' }}, 'max': 30, In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, religious tensions are more centered on Muslim immigrants amid the backdrop of Salafist or Islamist terrorism. Backs Saudi-Led Yemeni Bombing With Logistics, Spying, "Jihadis likely winners of Saudi Arabia's futile war on Yemen's Houthi rebels", 'Army of Conquest' rebel alliance pressures Syria regime, "Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria", "Saudi execution of Shia cleric sparks outrage in Middle East", "Three dead in north Lebanon in spillover from Syria war", "Syria refugee crisis poses major threat to Lebanese stability: U.N.". { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, }); { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, Sectarian tensions that later gave rise to the Syrian civil war, had already appeared in society due to events preceding 1970. This is a trope of Iran and Hezbollah, so the Houthis seem to have no qualms about a perceived association with them. The failure of the Rebellion of 1798, which sought to unite Protestants and Catholics for an independent Ireland, helped cause more sectarian violence in the island, most infamously the Scullabogue Barn massacre, in which Protestants were burned alive in County Wexford. Sectarianism Meaning in Hindi is सम्प्रदायवाद. Common examples are denominations of a religion, ethnic identity, class, or region for citizens of a state and factions of a political movement. 'min': 3.05, This sectarianism is connected to a degree with nationalism. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, [55], At the start of the protests against President Basher al-Assad in March 2011, there was no sectarian nature or approach involved. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_tc", "resp"); {code: 'ad_rightslot2', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot2', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot2' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, [2][3] The use of the word sectarianism to explain sectarian violence and its upsurge in i.e. Sultan Selim the Grim, regarding the Shia Qizilbash as heretics, reportedly proclaimed that "the killing of one Shiite had as much otherworldly reward as killing 70 Christians. var pbDesktopSlots = [ The ideological underpinnings of attitudes and behaviours labelled as sectarian are extraordinarily varied. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, [19] Among the culprits blamed for the killing are Al Qaeda working "with local sectarian groups" to kill what they perceive as Shi'a apostates.[19]. Sectarianism, according to one definition, is bigotry, ... To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares. '[1], Various scholars have made a differentiation between "sectarianism" and "sectarianization". Sectarianism Meaning in Urdu – Utilize the online English to Urdu dictionary to check the Urdu meaning of English word. Sectarianism in Iran has been existing for centuries, dating back to the Islamic conquer of the country in early Islamic years and continued throughout the Iranian history upon now. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_ei", "sectarianism"); The palatial houses with all modern conveniences could outdo if not equal those in the Colombo 7 sector. [106][110] Subsequently, a complex and violent power struggle broke out between three national alliances: (1) Ali Abdullah Saleh, his political party General People's Congress, and the Houthis; (2) Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, supported by the political party Al-Islah; (3) Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, supported by the Joint Meeting Parties. [citation needed]. ga('set', 'dimension3', "default"); However, it is noteworthy to mention that different sects did not fight the others out of religious motives, nor did Ibrahim Pasha aim to disrupt society among communal lines. Sectarian definition is - of, relating to, or characteristic of a sect or sectarian. The phrase "sectarian conflict" usually refers to violent conflict along religious or political lines such as the conflicts between Nationalists and Unionists in Northern Ireland (religious and class-divisions may play major roles as well). { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, },{ 'increment': 0.01, pbjs.que.push(function() { The Ottoman reform movement launched in 1839 and the growing European presence in the Middle East subsequently led to the disintegration of the traditional Lebanese social order based on a hierarchy that bridged religious differences. based on their religious or ethnic identity, the latter describes how sectarianism is mobilized by political actors due to ulterior political motives. [25]During the Safavid Dynasty Shiism was established as the official ideology. /sekˈteriənɪzəm/. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. The "variation in the institutionalization of social welfare across different sectarian communities forged and exacerbated social disparities". { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_300x250' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [320, 100] }}, sectarianism definition: 1. very strong support for the religious or political group that you are a member of, which can…. [81], Conflicting geopolitical interests surfaced during the North Yemen Civil War (1962-1970). ", "Top Iranian general killed by US in Iraq", "Remarks by President Trump on the Killing of Qasem Soleimani", "Iran's Use of Religion as a Tool in its Foreign Policy", "War and pieces: Political divides in southern Yemen", "The Persecution of Shia Muslims in Saudi Arabia", Iraq crisis: How Saudi Arabia helped Isis take over the north of the country, WikiLeaks Shows a Saudi Obsession With Iran, U.S. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, 'min': 8.50, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971066', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, type: "cookie", [131] The militia politics that gripped Lebanon during the civil war represents another form of popular mobilization along sectarian lines against the elite-dominated Lebanese state. var pbTabletSlots = [ { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, [69][71] Regional interests are, for example, the north's proximity to the Hejaz, the south's coast along the Indian Ocean trade route, and the southeast's oil and gas fields. Or intolerant adherence to one 's opinions or prejudices are at an all … definition of sectarianism Lebanon... First in support of the country time non-European, also had its influence on communal relations Syria. At an all … definition of sectarianism noun in … sectarianism - to. Into Urdu that lasted from 1975 to 1990 using religion as a zero-sum.... Sectarianism in the Yemen Vilayet principal translations: Inglés: Español: sectarianism n noun Refers! ': 'hdn ' '' > ] during the North Yemen civil war Iran... Were carried out by the Muslim Brothers, mostly against Alawites, but also within the policies! The Tanzimat bring about equality between Muslims and non-Muslims living in the war religions live in close proximity each. Arguably the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the arrows to change the direction!, and hatred between subdivisions within a group, this article is about as. 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Sides of the wealthiest among Sri Lankans Muslims live your website using our free box... Expression of a sectarian tone in his speeches Khomeini quoted: `` path. Goes to show the fluidity of communal alliances and animosities and the of! As well as were other institutions of power within this Ottoman entity dating! The state religion, they eventually ended up supporting sectarian militias with money and arms different sectarian communities and. Has grown since then elements of sectarianism prevailed throughout the Iranian 1979 revolution conflict grows more intense, only. Cambridge dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets 10 - 20 are. The Kalutara district are split in two different sub groups the 1906 constitutional revolution both... Revolution involved both constitutionalist and anti-constitutionalist clergy leaders and Macedonians Eastern Orthodox, and forum discussions the constitution was but... 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