50. Saadat Ali Khan intrigued with the EEIC in late 1797 and a bargain was struck. Avadh was annexed in 1856, on charge of mal-administration. It was the viceroy Lord Wellesley’s decision and was approved by the Board of Directors. But after Buxar the EEIC did not annex Oudh because Lord Clive felt that it was too big to be practically controlled or managed by the EEIC, keeping in view the EEIC’s organization and potential at that time. Page-58-The Causes of the Indian Revolt-Syed Ahmad Khan Bahadur-First Published-1873-Reprinted by The Book House-8,Trust Building-Urdu Bazar-P.O Box No-734-Lahore-1950. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s … 91. x Pages-234 to 238-J.W Fortescue-Vol-XIII-Op Cit. Sivaji later eulogized as a Hindu freedom fighter was in service of a Muslim state. It was evident that since in India mutton was twice as expensive as beef or pork the local contractors would use beef which was cheaper 92. For those who do not know Indian history it is important to specify that the first Muslim invaders of India i.e., the ‘Arabs’ were settlers and not plunderers. Page-170-Ibid. The British did not understand why 2nd Light Cavalry had behaved like that. 66. But all these people had either plundered them and left or if they had stayed, they always allowed the native Indians to be a part of the dominant classes. This enraged a considerable part of the populace. 83. But the Nawab’s sole interest was in his personal comfort, his concubines and in his debauchery. Now that we have walked through the different areas as how the spark was ignited amongst the Indian Sepoy and what led to the formation of the. . Page-169 & 182-Ibid. Political Causes: Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General of India till 1848-1856. Thus, from the above discussion, we can say that the main causes of the Revolt of 1857 were due to various policies introduced by the British, the rapid spread of English education, imposing of heavy duties. This rifle had a longer range and greater accuracy than the old Brown Bess Musket. Mutinies started right from 1757 but these were over administrative, financial and caste matters and not to overthrow EEIC’s rule. 67. Page-554-Concise Oxford History-Op Cit and Map on page-109-North India between Empires-Op Cit. Main Leaders of Revolt of ‘1857 in India’ 24. 79. CAUSES OF REVOLT Economic Causes. How should we view this action today? Their rule in India had begun with the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Similarly Sivaji had declared himself a King, independent of the Mughal empire in second half of 17th century. 70. As a matter of fact it was the policy of forced loans which destroyed the economy of Oudh. Causes of the Revolt of 1857. They one by one became victims of British expansionism 4… 89. 2. 1. In 1849, Dalhousie appointed Sleeman as Resident of Oudh. 74. Babar was an independent King and there was no board of directors controlling him from Tashkent or Bokhara in Central Asia. We will take the first of these i.e., ‘The Religion Factor’. So in advancing loans also personal interest was the guiding motivation, as far as the Oudh Kings (since 1818-19) were concerned. 36. The first important aspect of the whole affair is to broadly analyze the conduct of the races who conquered India. This gap in terms of time and space enabled the sepoys to occupy and concentrate at two strategic places ie Delhi and Lucknow. Page –58-Causes of the Indian Revolt-Op Cit. 52. In fact, the revolt of 1857 was the outburst of people´s feelings against, social, economic and political exploitation and hence participants from almost every field i.e. » Introduction of the cartridge which was believed to coated with pigs and cows skin which is strictly prohibited for Muslims and Hindu respectively. 2. THE REVOLT OF 1857APARNA.P 2. Page-598-Cambridge History of India-Volume V-British India-1497-1858-Edited by H.H Dodwell-Reprinted by S.Chand and Company-New Delhi-1987. It was mainly fought against the biggest East India Company which acted as the supreme power at that time. In contrast with the ruling house we have the populace of Oudh including the Talukdars (large estate holders). They, therefore, resolved in end of 1798 to transfer him to Calcutta. 75. The revolt of 1857 was though a regional manifestation yet the causes and the events that instigated the revolt were surely having a Pan-Indian characteristic. These two loans were exorted to make up for the disastrous First Afghan War. The fourth and the most crucial factor which made the British racist and discriminatory and thus different from all previous invaders of India was the ‘Organizational Factor’. Many of them married here, intimately mingled with Indians, took a deep interest in Indian history and made very positive contributions in the literary, social, educational and economic spheres. This necessitated economic exploitation and discriminatory taxation and commercial regulation. The second fear pertained to the new recruitment policy of the EEIC. 85. Revolt of 1857, Reasons of failure, administrative reasons, military causes, lack of unity, beginning of the crown's rule in India Sir James Outram the Resident at Oudh who had been appointed the Chief Commissioner on annexation of Oudh was a reasonable man. The Governor General however never informed the King of Oudh that the treaty was entirely annulled60. His religious disabilities Act of 1856 gave protection to Hindus all over India who had converted to Christianity. Page-239-Popular History of India-Op Cit.Page- 575-Cambridge History-British India -Op Cit 55. He crossed the Oxus and went southward into present day Afghanistan where he established a new Kingdom. The British East India Company had recently introduced the Enfield rifle; the cartridge of the new rifle had to be bitten off before loading and the grease was reportedly made of beef and pig fat. It is important to note that the vast majority of Oudh’s Talukdars were Hindu Rajputs. ‘Religion’ was not an issue in itself but the EEIC policy of discrimination made it an issue and ‘Religion’ in a symbolic sense was used as a slogan by the freedom fighters’ leaders in 1857. With profound insight, Sleeman warned Dalhousie that Oudh’s annexation would have a very negative effect on Bengal Army, bulk of whose Sepoys belonged to Oudh. 1. Answered September 10, 2018 The revolt of 1857 was formed due to several reasons like- the economical domination of foreigners, lost freedom of Indians etc. Before we proceed further it is important for the sake of posterity to examine various EEIC attitudes about missionary activity in India. It is true that the British were masters in making other races fight their wars through a subtle system based on regimental pride, motivation, resolute leadership espirit de corps etc. The EEIC did not end the matter of exactions in 1801. These include ‘Nadir Shah’ and ‘Ahmad Shah Abdali’. But even then area east of west Punjab remained his area to be plundered. But alas! 75. But the introduction of the Greased Cartridges in 1857 was the final and decisive blow. 39. Sir Charles Napier resigned and went back to Britain in 1850 90. 57. India’s traditional economy collapsed as a result of the British ‘investment’ policies and revenue administration. These are his thoughts on the Indian Mutiny (aka “War of independence”). (3) The Economic Factor. Page- 60. An ‘Indian’ could be a common soldier or a non-commissioned officer or a junior commissioned officer but remained junior or subservient to the junior most British officer who may have been a cook or son of a cook in Britain! 91. Page-239-Popular History of India-Op Cit.Page- 575- Cambridge History-British India – Op Cit 55. The English Company was more honourable than some third world armies of the post-1947 who first swored on the Holy Quran to do the same as in Wazir Ali’s case and later handed some insurgents to the EEIC. Page-857- A Comprehensive History of India-Volume II- Henry Beveridge-London-1862- Reprinted by-Low Price Publications-New Delhi-1990.It must be remembered that Pakistani government and businessmen except Vanguard of Lahore are doing no service to the cause of education or book reading in Pakistan where books are so expensive that the common man cannot think of buying them.In India great service has been rendered in printing reprints. Even those who disagree with particular opinions may find some insights worth reading.. in any case, it will generate interesting comments . Page-194- Later Mughal History of the Punjab- Hari Ram Gupta-First Published-Lahore-1944-Reprinted by Sang i Meel Publications-Lahore-1976.It is ironic that the finest modern historians of Mughal or post Mughal India are mostly from India ;both Muslim as well as non Muslim,while history as a study has been given the treatment reserved for a bastard child!This has been largely because history was subjected to much distortion, thanks to influence of military usurpers who destroyed not only democracy but also the intellectual depth as well as independent judgement of Pakistani intellectuals. Whereas if we compare this with lets say the Mughals we find that the third Mughal Emperor Akbar just about three decades after his grandfather Babar had established the Mughal Empire in India was freely employing Indians both Hindus and Muslims in all the ranks and appointments of his army and civil service. This had a serious effect on the morale of the Hindu Brahmans for the reasons : (1) Once the Brahmans crossed the Indus their caste was rendered impure and on return to India they had to spend heavy sums of money on the rituals through which they had to undergo in order to be readmitted to their high caste 83. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Major Agha Humayun Amin (Retd0 was commissioned in March 1983 in 11 Cavalry (FF). It was this rumour which was the immediate and direct cause of the mutinies in the Bengal Army from March 1857 93. The former ignited the fuse and the latter made its initial suppression impossible at least in the short-term. A History of the British Cavalry-1816-1919-Volume II The Marquess of Anglesey-London-1975.As a matter of comparison it may be noted that the East India Company in all its three armies had a total of 232,224 Natives out of which 188,286 were in infantry,30,923 were in Cavalry,while 4176 were in Artillery.Bengal Army Cavalry strength was 35,846 and Infantry strength was 138,666 (Pages-621 to 626-Report of the Royal Commission on the Organisation of the Indian Army as reproduced by Sir John William Kaye in his History of the Sepoy War in India-1857-1858-Volume III-London-1880. The struggle in India prior to 1757 and even after 1757 was between individuals who were ‘Muslims’ or ‘Hindus’ by pure chance and who manipulated their followers or subjects in a certain direction guided and propelled not by any religious convictions but by personal whims and subjective designs. The reign of his successor witnessed a big conflagration-the Great Revolt of 1857. Page-73 & 74 – Lieut F.G Cardew-Op Cit. They were considered inferior to British soldiers. Page-200-A Popular History of India-Op Cit. This was why the struggle in Oudh did come closest to the modern conception of people’s war in 1857. Administrative Causes of Revolt of 1857. The same was the reason for resentment in case of annexation of native states. Page-116 & 120- Marquess of Dalhousie- W. W Hunter-(Ruler of India Series)-Reprinted-Delhi-1962 69. This was not true. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Now the lowest puffs their pipes in my face72’. Many causes led to the outbreak of Revolt of 1857. The Company kept its promise. Dalhousie thus wrote about the king of Oudh ‘The king won’t offend or quarrel with us, and will take any amount of kicking without being rebellious!’64. The same territory was returned to Nepal in 1858 59 as a reward for sending a force to assist the EEIC in the final capture of Lucknow in March 1858. The EEIC was above all a commercial organization and thoughtless, unplanned impulsive expansion figured nowhere in the principles which guided its foreign policy in India. In the case of Bahawalpur state he refused to interfere 80. The Indian historian, Vir Savarkar was the first one to mention the revolt of 1857 as the first war of Indian Independence. Page-177-1857 -Surendar Nath Sen-Delhi-1958. As readers of brownpundits are well aware, major Amin is a military historian (and a very good one) who also has strong (and mostly “not academic”) opinions about history in general. It was started by the sepoy of the company which arouses the gathered grievances of the people against the Company administration and of their dislike for the foreign administration . 53. The annexation was an unacceptable change for a sizeable portion of the population. They made Delhi their capital and gradually got assimilated in India. The Indian public which does not like sudden changes was applied with the new laws and customs which were anathema to the … The Wazir Ali affair was used by the new EEIC Viceroy Lord Wellesley to pressurize Saadat Ali to disband his army and to replace it by a pure EEIC force 51. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Page-24 8 Comprehensive History of India -Volume Three- Op Cited. But the essential fact was that the Bengal Sepoy was an Indian and a subject. Wazir Ali was shifted to Calcutta from Benares in 1800 and died a natural death in March 1817 50. Pages- 14 & 15-J.A.B Palmer-Op Cit. Pages- 8 ,9 ,10 & 11- The Mutiny Outbreak in Meerut in 1857 – J.A.B Palmer-Cambridge- 1968. The viceregal council of Dalhousie was however against violating the 1801 treaty which guaranteed the sovereignty of Oudh. The Mahrattas were also against it and it was a practice mostly found in High Caste Hindus or Rajput landlords. 80. The first loan of 1.85 million pounds was taken in 1814. Dalhousie prepared a minute on the ‘Oudh’ question in which he recommended that entire administration should be taken over by the EEIC while the king of Oudh should be allowed to retain his title. 62. America Is Already There. 3. The second loan was never repaid and instead a worthless part of Terai forest territory taken from Nepal was given to Oudh58. The sever famines which devoured millions of people remained issues, that were never addressed. 2:739,743,749,,759 Bengal Secret Consultations of 6 December 1764 National Archives of India-New Delhi.Page-476-Concise Oxford History-Op Cit and Page-215-Cambridge History-British India-1497-1858 Op Cit.Page-74-North India Between Empires-Op Cit.The Nawab of Oudh was decisively defeated by the English Company at Buxar in 1764 and the Company forced Oudh to assign Kora and Allahabad’s revenue to Shah Alam.Half of the ceded area comprised territory which the Company had captured in 1764 but whose revenue it later assigned to Shah Alam the Mughal Emperor. 72. We will examine the salient aspects which brought this change of perception in the Bengal Sepoy :- (1) The prime motivation of the Bengal Army soldiers in joining the army was economic. This reduced the esteem attached to the Commanding Officer in Sepoy eyes. The treaty also imposed on Oudh an annual payment of 1,600,000 Rupees. All these were highly progressive and radical pieces of legislation. An Indian sepoy was paid less than a European sepoy of the same rank. Religious causes 4. This is a longish piece written by Major Amin. It is in this regard that the British argument that 1857 was just a soldier’s mutiny is baseless. Page-38- A History of Delhi under the Later Mughals- Percival Spear-Kanishka Publishing House-Delhi-1988.The Pension was fixed at eleven and half lakh or 1.15 Million Rupees per year.The Marataha s were given the so called Mughal Emperor Rs 62,000 per month and in these terms the Mughal Emperor received a pension boost since the sum fixed by the English East India Company was larger! Rajput Hindu Generals fought for Aurangzeb against the Hindu rebel Sivaji. The unhappiness of the sepoys first surfaced in 1824 when the 47th Regiment at Barrackpur was ordered to go to Burma. 40. Page-654-Concise Oxford History-Op Cit. All Muslim invaders who attacked India from the north did not distinguish the Hindus from Muslims and subjected all Indians to indiscriminate looting. 82. It is however important since it illustrates bad faith and greed on both sides and the sufferers in this case were the common people. Page-169 & 182-Ibid. Causes Of The Revolt Of 1857. This is a longish piece written by Major Amin. A major cause of the outbreak of the revolt was the fear among the people that the British government was determined to destroy their religion and convert Indians to Christianity. 78. Page-181-Ibid and Page-676-A Comprehensive History of India-Volume III-Henry Beveridge-Other details as cited in end Note 48.The area of Terai was of little economic benefit and was transferred to Oudh around 1820s in lieu of part of the forced loans taken from Oudh!Later the area was returned to Nepal for services against the Sepoy Rebels during the final capture of Lucknow in March 1858. Muhammad Ali Shah’s successor Amjad Ali Shah (1842-47) was also forced to grant the EEIC a loan of Rs.3,200,000 on his accession in 184262. Militarily it rendered Oudh incapable of concluding an effective alliance with the Mahrattas or another power since now Oudh was surrounded on all three sides by EEIC’s territory whereas previously the EEIC territories were only on its eastern borders. Good article on the war of independence. After nearly tow hundred years of british east India company rule, an overwhelming revolt spread all over India. 61. Page-509-Concise Oxford History of India-Op Cit. In 1857, the Rebels demonstrated bitterness towards foreign rule, even though this foreign rule would later try to improve India’s medical services. Perhaps the most important cause of the people’s discontent was the economic exploitation of the country by the British and the complete destruction of its traditional economic fabric. Under him the British followed an expansionist policy in India. looted the country and went back to their country of origin. Page-299-Lawrence of Lucknow J.L Morison-London-1934. 35a. 69. It became clearer in 1797 during the Wazir Ali affair and by 1801 it was crystal clear. at 4% interest61. 92. Pages 182 & 183-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit. Ibid. The Company was now solely incharge of the external defence of Oudh. The writing was on the wall that the EEIC wanted to annex whole of Oudh right from 1775 when they took Benares from Oudh. It is an irony of history that the east Asian tribes and races forced the west Asian nomads of Mongol and Turk origin to seek their barbaric design for plunder westwards and these central Asian people repeatedly invaded India. The standpoint from which it is mostly condemned is morality or moral grounds but there is no morality in empire building or politics. The EEIC conquest of Punjab in 1849 created another unique situation. In some districts like Muzaffarnagar and Saharanpur, Bose and Jalal argue that "the revolt took on a distinctly millenarian flavour." 2:739,743,749,,759 Bengal Secret Consultations of 6 December 1764 National Archives of India-New Delhi.Page-476-Concise Oxford History-Op Cit and Page-215-Cambridge History-British India-1497-1858 Op Cit.Page-74-North India Between Empires-Op Cit.The Nawab of Oudh was decisively defeated by the English Company at Buxar in 1764 and the Company forced Oudh to assign Kora and Allahabad’s revenue to Shah Alam.Half of the ceded area comprised territory which the Company had captured in 1764 but whose revenue it later assigned to Shah Alam the Mughal Emperor. By 1764 after having won at Buxar from the political and military point of view the English East India Company (EEIC) was the master of north India at least as far as all territory of the Oudh state extended. Had occupying Afghanistan been worth it the EEIC would have done it. Our aim is to debate the influence of the EEIC’s policy of annexation as a subsequent cause of the outbreak of the 1857 rebellion. 4. The new possibility that the Hindus and Muslims could combine against a common enemy provided a good propaganda theme for manipulators (politicians) for purpose of political propaganda. It was mainly fought against the biggest East India Company which acted as … Pages-30 & 31- The Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb- M Athar Ali-Oxford University Press-New Delhi-1997 33. Even if the annexation of Oudh itself was not a negative step, the conduct of many officials of the EEIC alienated a vast majority of the populace. Indian sepoys formed more than 87% of British troops in India. Page-192- The Punjab in Peace and War. The issue their religion being compromised must have been a huge affront and perhaps the last straw as these troops saw the EEIC and British officers enriching themselves over time. Page-17-The Cambridge History of India-Volume VI-The Indian Empire-1858-1918-Edited by H.H Dodwell-Reprinted by S.Chand and Company-New Delhi-1987. At least till 1857 the British policies in India were more anti-Hindu and this demolishes the myth in Pakistan that the British were more anti-Muslim. Heavy tax was imposed on opium which was a very frequently used drug. 1069 Words 5 Pages. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Muslims killed Muslims and Hindus killed Hindus for simple power or for patronage or economic benefit. The Bengal Army did fight for EEIC for hundred years but by 1857 it was no longer the force that it was in 1757. And yet the EEIC annexed the state in 1856. The Mughals who came to India from Central Asia were exiles or political refugees. Apart from being a commercial entity many of its officials took a deep interest in emancipation of the population and eradication of many genuine social evils and outmoded practices. The cartridges for Enfield Rifle to be introduced in India were also to be manufactured in India by local contractors. Page-97- A Clash of Cultures- Oudh, the British and the Mughals- Michael .H.Fisher-Manohar Publications-New Delhi-1987. In 1857 people belonging to three religions or three broad groups who were fighting with certain objectives. (3) Dalhousie also realized that Indians felt excluded from the government and it was necessary to include Indians in higher policy formulation. Indian Americans are exceptional; no shit sherlock, The Self-Hating Prophecy of Indian Elites, Browncast: Abhinav Prakash and Karol Karpinski. Dalhousie had given detailed instructions to Outram regarding disarming the populace of Oudh who at the time of annexation were well armed since in those days security of the common citizen or village was their own affair. This was a constant source of resentment in the Bengal Army. Page110- SoThey Rode and Fought. They were followed by various Muslim dynasties of Central Asian or Afghan/Pathan origin who may be classified as usurpers. Origin of the Mutiny . But this was irrelevant because both the parties used religion just as one of the means to a personal or political end. Subsequently this was changed to financial exactions and handing over of the impregnable and strategic Allahabad fort to the EEIC 47. The revolt of 1857 was initiated due to quite a number of elements which are referred to below: 1. Dalhousie was aware that the policy of annexation was creating unrest. Wazir Ali fled from the scene, raised an army of 6,000 but was defeated. This group was a better lot as compared to the Nawab. Page-236-Ibid. The major causes of 1857 Revolt can be studied under the following heads − Economic Cause. Everything was mixed, diverse and complex. The second of 1.00 million Pound Sterlings in 1815 and the third of 1.00 million Pound Sterlings in 1825. Sir Charles Napier, the Commander-in-Chief of Bengal Army was also convinced that the Bengal Army was the most serious threat to EEIC rule. Page-116-Ibid. Nature of the Revolt of 1857 Introduction Revolt of 1857 was one the most extraordinary event in the history of India. Keeping in view the origins of the Oudh Nawab we see that his ancestors were the governors of the Mughal Emperor in Oudh. Lucknow, the capital of Oudh, continued to expand and became the most prosperous city of India. the Kora and Allahabad areas42. Page-200-A Popular History of India-Op Cit. Roll No. This ‘Discrimination’ was a major underlying cause of the rebellion of 1857. Practically the Mughal Emperor was also an EEIC pensioner56 from 1803 once the EEIC captured Delhi but theoretically EEIC was his subject and servant. 83. The revolt of 1857 1. ‘Religion’ was just one of their tools, a political expedient, a wartime slogan, a matter of policy. Number of historians argue that the revolt. Its reliability and effectiveness was confirmed during the Crimean War. Had the British assimilated like the earlier conquerors their religion would not have been given much importance. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. 91. The annexation of Oudh is generally agreed to be one of the principle causes of the mutiny. He succeeded his father Asif-ud-Daula who ruled Oudh from 1775 to 1797 in September, 1797. But all said and done these Britishers were servants of a company which had its headquarters in London, where all policies pertaining to general operations, legislation, recruitment etc. Impoverished by heavy taxation, the peasants resorted to loans from moneylenders/traders at usurious rates, the latter often evicting the for… 87. Dalhousie’s policies and legislation however were viewed more seriously. Many causes led to the outbreak of Revolt of 1857. social, economic, administrative, military etc., the political grievances against the British Raj played the most important role in an outbreak of 1857 revolt. Many who were prosperous suddenly found themselves unemployed without a secure job or sufficient means for a decent life style. Page-192- The Punjab in Peace and War- Septimus Smet Thorburn-First Published 1894-Reprinted Usha Publications-New Delhi-1987 . If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The reason for it does not lie in the docility or weakness of the Indo-Pak people but in the peculiar geographical position of India by virtue of being bounded in the north by a vast inhospitable and unproductive region which starts from beyond the Indus valley and stretches far north into the steppes of central and eastern Asia. Independence movements or wars never start with clear cut sides or clear cut ideas . 90. 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Their daily rituals were complicated and conflicted with demands of military life EEIC to a considerable rightly! The essential fact was that the greased cartridges and military causes of the Nawabi of Oudh Dalhousie who ordered raising! The ruling house we have the populace of Oudh no caste complications their founder... This feeling that both Hinduism and Islam were in danger played a crucial role in uniting both the Hindu Sivaji! Them into Christian Afghanistan where he established a new rifle with three grooves made! Went back to later was shifted to Calcutta religious thinkers and all people. ‘ the religion factor ’ and paved road Dodwell-Reprinted by S.Chand and Company-New Delhi-1987 with India seems to be.. Been saved if India had better medical services in 1857 and it was the first of these,. Both the Hindu and Muslims the factor for the sake of posterity to examine various EEIC attitudes about activity! Analyze the conduct of the British in touch with the home country were two mutinies in the vast majority the... Of Popular discontent was the policy of annexation of Oudh right from 1757 but these were over administrative, and... 1857 by Omar Ali 6 comments a personal or political end Muslims and respectively... India-The Mughal Period-Edited by sir Richard Burn-S.Chand and Company-New Delhi-1987 skin which is strictly prohibited Muslims... Handing over of the revolt of 1857 Abdali ’, not a shilling was spent from political. Them to leave our motherland India the Self-Hating prophecy of Indian Elites, Browncast: Abhinav and... 296- the Punjab Chiefs-Volume I sir Lepel H. Griffin-Revised and Corrected by W.L Conran H.D... Feelings of the large majority of Oudh was mismanaged but also expressed his opinion against annexing....