Water is an essential element for survival. This requires skill, organization and frequently the use of foreign currency for fuel, equipment and spare parts. 18 Methods Of Irrigation - Suitability, Advantages And ... ... Sign in The suitability of the various irrigation methods, i.e., surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation depends mainly on the following factors: a. METHODS OF IRRIGATION - SUITABILITY, ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS Water application methods are grouped as: 1. The various sources of water for irrigation are wells, ponds, lakes, canals, tube-wells and even dams. Very helpful it strictly targeted my exercise, Your email address will not be published. Surface irrigation is preferred if the irrigation water contains much sediment. Irrigation water quality refers mainly to the chemical composition of the water, or more specifically, to the mineral composition of water. Here, the water is distributed through watering cans by manual labour. However, the amount of land levelling can be considerable. 230 IRRIGATION SUITABILITY RATINGS AND OKRA PRODUCTIVITY OF SOME MID-BENUE TROUGH SOILS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS 1Abagyeh, S. O. I., 2Ibo, P. I. and 1Idoga, S. 1Department of Soil Science, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Makurdi, Benue State 2Benue Agricultural and Rural Development Authority, Makurdi, Benue State Corresponding Author’s e-mail: … Sub Surface Irrigation. on sandy soils and a shallow rooting crop, furrow irrigation would be most appropriate. Before choosing an irrigation method, an estimate must be made of the costs and benefits of the available options. In areas of supplementary irrigation, sprinkler or drip irrigation may be more suitable than surface irrigation because of their flexibility and adaptability to varying irrigation demands on the farm. b. The importance of irrigation can be explained in the following points: Irrigation should be optimum because even over-irrigation can spoil the crop production. However, the climate supports cultivation throughout the year. Drip irrigation system Or trickle irrigation is one of the latest and modern methods of irrigation.It is suitable for water scarcity and salt affected soils. To know more about irrigation, its types, methods and importance, keep visiting BYJU’S website or download the BYJU’S app for further reference. Water is distributed from a central location by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or from sprinklers from the moving platform. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no single best solution: all methods of irrigation method. Irrigation is the process of applying water to the crops artificially to fulfil their water requirements. But all of these studies, ignore the continuous changes of soil properties and so it causes their evaluation results are not accurate enough. Clay soils with low infiltration rates are ideally suited to surface irrigation. The different types of irrigation include- sprinkler irrigation, surface irrigation, drip irrigation, sub-irrigation and manual irrigation. The process of supplying water to the crops is known as irrigation. Also, a regular supply of fuel and spare parts must be maintained which - together with the purchase of equipment - may require foreign currency. Thus the proper method is to be used for the best cultivation. Droughts and famines are caused due to low rainfall. ( 2014 ) proposed a model to assess and map irrigation water well suitability using geospatial analysis. and installation. ), This means that if only little water is to be applied per application, e.g. Comparison of Different Irrigation Methods Based on the Parametric Evaluation Approach in West North Ahwaz Plain 261 County, (33%) was moderately suitable (S2), (%9) was classified as marginally suitable (S3), (7%) of the area was founded currently not suitable (N1) and (25%) was very unsuitable for surface irrigation due to their high slope gradient. Figure 67 Basin irrigation is relatively easy, 7.1 Surface, He or she must know which method suits the local conditions Irrigation increases the availability of water supply, which in turn increases the income of the farmers. surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation, depends mainly on the following factors: - natural conditions - type of crop Testing of the various methods – under the prevailing local conditions – provides the best basis for a sound choice of irrigation method. Insufficient and uncertain rainfall adversely affects agriculture. Irrigation water quality can best be determined by chemical laboratory analysis. One chapter is devoted to the choice of an appropriate irrigation method. The suitability of the various irrigation methods, i.e. the prevailing local conditions - provides the best basis for a sound choice The equipment needed is often easier to maintain and less dependent on the availability of foreign currency. rice). Borders require the highest level of sophistication. Machine operation requires a high level of skill, organization and usually foreign currency. It has a simpler design than the furrow and border design. If irrigation is used traditionally, it is usually simpler to improve the traditional irrigation method than it is to introduce a previously unknown method. When the irrigation schedule has been determined (see Volume 4) it is known how much water (in mm) has to be given per irrigation application. Irrigation methods is the fifth in a series of training manuals on irrigation. Spraying it under pressure 2. I like it very much. Also, the chances of water loss are very high. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the important methods of irrigation, i.e., (1) Surface Irrigation (2) Overhead or Sprinkler Irrigation (3) Drip or Trickle Irrigation. Multiple cropping is not possible in India because the rainy season is specific in most of the regions. Varied quantities of water are allowed on the fields at different times. Strong wind can disturb the spraying of water from sprinklers. This a labour intensive and time-consuming system of irrigation. The main objective of this research is to compare different irrigation methods based upon a parametric evaluation system in an area of 41,200 ha in the Rasht region, north Iran. Suitability ~ This method is suitable for inundation irrigation systems, pastures & forage crops which is inexpensive. Two different methods of irrigation are- modern methods that include sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation; traditional irrigation that includes manual irrigation where water is pulled out by the farmers themselves from the wells and canals to irrigate the land. Sub-surface III. best. This section discusses some of the important factors which should be taken into account when determining which surface irrigation method is most suitable: basin, furrow or border irrigation. Sprinkler or Drip Irrigation, 7.2 Basin, Furrow Water application efficiency (see Annex 4, step 8) is generally higher with sprinkler and drip irrigation than surface irrigation and so these methods are preferred when water is in short supply. These costs should then be compared with the expected benefits (yields). A. Similarly, crops require water for their growth and development. Followings are the types of irrigation methods-Surface Irrigation; Localized Irrigation; Drip Irrigation; Sprinkler Irrigation; Center Pivot Irrigation; Lateral Move Irrigation; Sub-Irrigation; Manual Irrigation; A brief description of these irrigation types is given below. A minimum slope of 0.05% is recommended to assist drainage. Table 5 SELECTION OF AN IRRIGATION METHOD BASED ON THE DEPTH OF THE NET IRRIGATION APPLICATION, Net irrigation depth per application (mm), long furrows, medium borders, small basins, Figure 66 Land levelling using animal traction. The increased number of alternative irrigation methods, drought and water shortages, increasing demand for food, concern for environmental protection, government involvement in the promotion of pressurized irrigation and private sector interest (the interest of suppliers of irrigation equipments to increase their income regardless of the consequences for farmers) have heightened … Basin Irrigation. There are some studies in relation to evaluation methods of irrigation suitability mentioned below that show different picture of two kinds of irrigation including drop and gravity irrigation in different area. the results of water testing, methods of statistical analysis, ion ratios, a Piper diagram, and a variety of groundwater irrigation suitability models were used to analyze the chemical composition of groundwater and the influence of seawater intrusion. Drip irrigation with saline water is one of the most effective methods to ease the current worldwide water shortage. = (CO 3 — + HCO a) – (Ca ++ + Mg ++) Irrigation waters have been grouped into classes of low, medium, high and very high, depending upon their suitability for irrigations as shown below: . In this case medium furrows or short borders. Also, we have published details of some of these irrigation methods. Farmer must know which method suits the local conditions best. Water of a low class can be safely used on poorly drained heavy soils which would retain any salt that may be present in the water. Again, it is not possible to give specific guidelines leading to a single best solution; each option has its advantages and disadvantages. For the operation of furrow and border irrigation systems more labour is required combined with more skill. Type of crop. Irrigation is the process of supplying water to the land at regular intervals by means of canals and other artificial methods, to enhance agricultural growth and maintain the landscape during the periods of less average rainfall. The main advantage of this method is that it is cheap. 5. Micro-irrigation is the application of small quantities of water frequently directly above and below the surface of the soil, in the form of discrete drops, continuous drops through water emitters. Paddy rice is always grown in basins. Here, a farmer pulls out water from wells or canals by himself or using cattle and carries to farming fields. The sizes of the furrows, borders and basins have been discussed in the previous chapters. Surface irrigation often requires a much higher labour input - for construction, operation and maintenance - than sprinkler or drip irrigation (Figure 65). The frequency, rate, amount and time of irrigation are different for different crops and also vary according to the types of soil and seasons. Water is applied in the root zone of the crop. This is often done by machines. About seventy per cent of the human body consists of water while plants contain almost 90 per cent of water. If the slope is more than 1%, terraces can be constructed. or Border Irrigation, 7.1 Surface, Sprinkler or Drip Irrigation. On steeper sloping land, contour furrows can be used up to a maximum land slope of 3%. Furrow irrigation is best used for irrigating row crops such as maize, vegetables and trees. Border irrigation can be used on sloping land up to 2% on sandy soil and 5% on clay soil. The type of technology affects the choice of irrigation method. Irrigation offers moisture required for growth and development, germination and other related functions. There are five basic methods of irrigation (flooding, furrow irrigation, trickle, sprinkling, and sub irrigation). Omran proposed a simple method to assess the groundwater quality and to map its spatial variation in terms of suitability for irrigation in the Darb El-Arbaein area, Southwestern Desert, Egypt. The above considerations have been summarized in Table 5. several important criteria in the selection of a suitable irrigation method. You’ll learn all the above mentioned irrigation methods in details here. Furrow irrigation can be used on flat land (short, near horizontal furrows), and on mildly sloping land with a slope of maximum 0.5%. if the infiltration rate is more than 30 mm/hour.). Among all the irrigation methods, the drip irrigation is the most efficient and it can be practised in a large variety of crops, especially in vegetables, orchard crops, flowers and plantation crops. Factors to be taken into account include: Flat lands, with a slope of 0.1% or less, are best suited for basin irrigation: little land levelling will be required. Surface irrigation may be difficult to use on irregular slopes as considerable land levelling may be required to achieve the required land gradients. Let us have a look at different types of irrigation and the methods used for irrigation. Excess water leads to waterlogging, hinder germination, increased salt concentration and uprooting because roots can’t withstand standing water. This chapter gives some very broad guidance and indicates The servicing of the equipment may be problematic and the costs may be high compared to the benefits. In this type of irrigation, either the field is flooded (this is known as Basin Irrigation) or the water is fed into small channels (this is known as furrow irrigation). Also Read: Crop Production and Management. Hence, […] An exception is rice grown on terraces on sloping lands. ( 2012 ) and El Omran et al. The purchase of equipment requires high capital investment per hectare. Irrigation has stabilized the output and yield levels. Irrigation is the process of applying water to the crops artificially to fulfil their water requirements. The productivity on irrigated land is higher as compared to the un-irrigated land. Water is applied from a channel located at the upper reach of the Loss of water by conveyance and deep percolation is high and the efficiency of irrigation is only 40-50% at field level in this method of irrigation. Standard water quality test needed for design and operation of drip irrigation system. (However, none of the surface irrigation methods can be used if the sand is very coarse, i.e. It is one of the most primitive and insufficient methods of irrigation. Especially if the basins are small, they can be constructed by hand or animal traction. But its efficiency is poor because of the uneven distribution of water. Here a pump is connected to pipes which generate pressure and water is sprinkled through nozzles of pipes. Numerous subclasses exist within each of these basic methods. These types of irrigation systems are practised based on the different types of soils, climates, crops and resources. It must be checked that this amount can indeed be given, with the irrigation method under consideration. They result from a combination of soil type and rooting depth. Also the border, sprinkler and drip irrigation methods are discussed, but in less detail. In practice, in small-scale irrigation projects, usually 40-70 mm of water are applied in basin irrigation, 30-60 mm in border irrigation and 20-50 mm in furrow irrigation. The water is spread or flooded into the field, without much control or before preparation. 2.4 Crop-Water requirement calculation by Penman method and computer software (CROPWAT-8) 2.5 Principal crops, their seasons and water requirements 2.6 Method of applying water to irrigation field as surface, sub-surface and Sprinkler methods 2.7 Techniques of surface irrigation and their suitability Sprinkler and drip irrigation, because of their high capital investment per hectare, are mostly used for high value cash crops, such as vegetables and fruit trees. The grading needs to be accurate. A sprinkler system, as its name suggests, sprinkles water over the crop and helps in an even distribution of water. The module also highlights the advantages and d isad vantages of the d ifferent irrigation system s, as well as their suitability based on physical constraints and cropping system . Under these circumstances, sprinkler or drip irrigation are more suitable than surface irrigation. Applying it beneath the soil surface 4. To choose an irrigation method, the farmer must know the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods. Surface irrigation requires accurate land levelling, regular maintenance and a high level of farmers' organization to operate the system. The manual describes in some detail the basin and furrow irrigation methods. All soil types, except coarse sand with an infiltration rate of more than 30 mm/hour, can be used for surface irrigation. They are seldom used for the lower value staple crops. If, on the other hand, a large amount of irrigation water is to be applied per application, e.g. Surface, Sprinkler or Drip Irrigation. Water is distributed through a system of pumping stations gates, ditches and canals by raising the water table. Many other crops can also be grown in basins: e.g. In general, drip and sprinkler irrigation are technically more complicated methods. In basin irrigation, the land is divided into basins. Surface II. This chapter gives some very broad guidance and indicates several important criteria in the selection of a suitable irrigation method. Irrigation can be carried out by two different methods: In this method, irrigation is done manually. Assessing the suitability of land for irrigation ... extent of soils and their attributes in the priority regions. Testing of the various methods - under Those crops that cannot stand a very wet soil for more than 12-24 hours should not be grown in basins. In this system, water is applied to each plant through a network of pipes under low pressure. There are different types of irrigation practised for improving crop yield. 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Irrigation has helped to bring most of the fallow land under cultivation. Cost/benefit analysis is, however, beyond the scope of this manual. Irrigation efficiency, application efficiency will be d iscussed in relation to water use efficiency. Sprinkler or drip irrigation are preferred above surface irrigation on steeper or unevenly sloping lands as they require little or no land levelling. Pressurized irrigation have their advantages and disadvantages. The modern method compensates the disadvantages of traditional methods and thus helps in the proper way of water usage. Figure 65 Surface irrigation requires a high labour input. The results demonstrated that by applying sprinkle irrigation instead of surface and drip irrigation methods, the arability of 21,250 ha 共72.53%兲 in the Abbas Plain will improve. However, it must be remembered that efficiency is just as much a function of the irrigator as the method used. In this, the water is distributed by a sprinkler system moving in a circular pattern. (In large-scale irrigation projects, the amounts of water applied may be much higher. The last column indicates which irrigation method is most suitable. The suitability of the various irrigation methods, i.e. surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation, depends mainly on the following factors: Natural conditions; Type of crop; Type of technology The choice of an irrigation method also depends on the irrigation tradition within the region or country. The approximate rooting depths of the most Important field crops are given in Volume 4. Your email address will not be published. Groundwater in coastal aquifers is often affected by seawater intrusion, resulting in water quality deterioration. Border irrigation is particularly suitable for close growing crops such as alfalfa, but border irrigation can also be used for row crops and trees. 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Testing of the human body consists of water in water quality can best be by! Irregular slopes as considerable land levelling ; system operation and maintenance depend heavily on the availability foreign! Assessing the suitability of the human body consists of water applied may be to. Are five basic methods of irrigation water contains much sediment so it causes evaluation. The benefits economically attractive this requires skill, organization and frequently the use of currency! Machine operation requires a high level of farmers ' organization to operate the system an even of... Often easier to improve the traditional irrigation method than to introduce a totally new method drip and sprinkler:! Of farmers ' organization to operate the system, water is sprinkled through nozzles of pipes low... For close growing crops ( e.g system of irrigation systems are practised on... Multiple cropping is not possible in India because the rainy season is specific most. 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