At independence, the cultural and political differences were sharp among Nigeria's dominant ethnic groups: the Hausa–Fulani ('Northerners'), Igbo ('Easterners') and Yoruba ('Westerners'). This process advocated that any candidate needed to pass through adoption for all elective positions from the local government, state government and federal government. [117] More than $400 billion were stolen from the treasury by Nigeria's leaders between 1960 and 1999. Many late 20th-century musicians such as Fela Kuti have famously fused cultural elements of various indigenous music with American jazz and soul to form Afrobeat which has in turn influenced hip hop music. [277][278] Early marriages can result in fistula. [284] According to the U.S. Department of State,[284] the most significant human rights problems are: use of excessive force by security forces; impunity for abuses by security forces; arbitrary arrests; prolonged pretrial detention; judicial corruption and executive influence on the judiciary; rape, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of prisoners, detainees and suspects; harsh and life‑threatening prison and detention centre conditions; human trafficking for the purpose of prostitution and forced labour; societal violence and vigilante killings; child labour, child abuse and child sexual exploitation; domestic violence; discrimination based on ethnicity, region and religion. [64] An imbalance was created in the polity by the result of the 1961 plebiscite. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Lagos, . Nigeria is popularly known as the giant of African, the most populous black nation on earth with over 150 million people, the country is located in the western part of the African continent. Nigeria is located in western Africa. In 2004, the IUCN–World Conservation Union identified 81 IAS in South Africa, 49 in Mauritius, 37 in Algeria and Madagascar, 35 in Kenya, 28 in Egypt, 26 in Ghana and Zimbabwe, and 22 in Ethiopia. Despite these revenues, the military government did little to improve the standard of living of the population, help small and medium businesses, or invest in infrastructure. In November 1991, after a census was conducted, the National Electoral Commission (NEC) announced on 24 January 1992 that both legislative elections to a bicameral National Assembly and a presidential election would be held later that year. Legal. Nigeria provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are under-served. In April 1994, the Super Eagles ranked 5th in the FIFA World Rankings, the highest ranking achieved by an African football team. The capital of Abia state is Umuahia and the state’s slogan is God’s own state. Owobi Angrew, "Tiptoeing Through A Constitutional Minefield: The Great Sharia Controversy in Nigeria", Rais Akhtar; Health Care Patterns and Planning in Developing Countries, Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 264. The House contains 360 seats, with the number of seats per state determined by population. Herder—farmer conflict in central Nigeria, violent protests by Muslims in the Northern part of the country, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Drilling and Killing: Chevron and Nigeria's Oil Dictatorship, International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam, "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020 – Nigeria", "Nigeria's Buhari wins historic election landslide", "Linguistic diversity in Africa and Europe – Languages Of The World", "Choosing an Indigenous Official Language for Nigeria", "The countries with the 10 largest Christian populations and the 10 largest Muslim populations", "Nigeria to Give All of Its 200 Million People Identity Numbers", "Nigeria becomes Africa's largest economy", "Nigerian Economy Overtakes South Africa's on Rebased GDP", "Nigeria is poised to become Africa's most powerful nation", The Americas in Transition: The Contours of Regionalism, South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership, "MINT Countries: Nigeria Now Listed Among Emerging World Economic Powers", "The Mint countries: Next economic giants? [274] Maternal mortality was at 814 per 100,000 live births in 2015. In this regard, some foreign vehicle manufacturing companies like Nissan have made known their plans to have manufacturing plants in Nigeria. [123], Millions of Nigerians have emigrated during times of economic hardship, primarily to Europe, North America and Australia. Since the populations were partially affiliated with the Arab Muslim culture of North Africa, they started to trade and be referred to by the Arabic speakers as Al-Sudan (meaning "The Blacks") as they were considered an extended part of the Muslim world. To gain weight and conform with African standards of beauty, Nigerian girls can consume food all day in "fattening rooms". Lagos has a variety of hotels ranging from three-star to five-star hotels, with a mixture of local hotels such as Eko Hotels and Suites, Federal Palace Hotel and franchises of multinational chains such as Intercontinental Hotel, Sheraton, and Four Points by Hilton. (The country joined OPEC in 1971.) The results of the most recent census were released in December 2006 and gave a population of 140,003,542. The spacecraft was operated by NigComSat and the Nigerian Space Research and Development Agency. Description: This map shows where Nigeria is located on the Africa map. This contrasts with the sixteen largest fields which produced 37.9% of Nigeria's petroleum at that time.[165]. Note: Since fraudulent documents can be easily obtained in Nigeria, the consular officer may wish to consider referring suspect documents to the Fraud Prevention Unit, U.S. Embassy Abuja or U.S. Consulate Lagos, for investigation. [108] There are three distinct systems of law in Nigeria: The Nigerian military is charged with protecting the Federal Republic of Nigeria, promoting Nigeria's global security interests, and supporting peacekeeping efforts, especially in West Africa. [141] However, very little is known about IAS in Nigeria, with most technical reports and literatures reporting fewer than 10 invasive plants in the country. [95] Ethnic violence for control over the oil-producing Niger Delta region and an insurgency in the North-East are some of the issues facing the country. ', Meltem Myftyler and Myberra Yyksel, 'Turkey: A Middle Power in the New Order', in. Nigeria has the highest rate of twin births per year globally. As of 1999, it's 194,394 kilometres of road networks are the main means of transportation. Lagos is currently taking steps to become a global city. South of Kano the mixed soils contain locally derived granite and loess (wind-borne deposits). Some films and audio documentaries include: The 2009 thriller film The Figurine is generally considered the game changer, which heightened the media attention towards New Nigerian Cinema revolution. [185] The primary objectives of the Nigeriasat-1 were: to give early warning signals of environmental disaster; to help detect and control desertification in the northern part of Nigeria; to assist in demographic planning; to establish the relationship between malaria vectors and the environment that breeds malaria and to give early warning signals on future outbreaks of meningitis using remote sensing technology; to provide the technology needed to bring education to all parts of the country through distant learning; and to aid in conflict resolution and border disputes by mapping out state and International borders. Kingdoms and empires of precolonial Nigeria, Controversies surrounding the 2007 presidential election, Nigeria under Umaru Musa Yar’Adua and Goodluck Jonathan, The 2015 elections and electorate concerns, Recession, fight against corruption, and insecurity, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Nigeria, Official Site of the Embassy of Nigeria in Seoul, South Korea, Official Site of the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, United States, Official Site of the Embassy of Nigeria in Germany, Official Site of the Embassy of Nigeria in Vienna, National Geographic Kids - Countries - Nigeria, Official Site of the Embassy of Nigeria in Stockholm, Sweden, Nigeria - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Nigeria - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The word is likely an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.[36][37]. Nigeria, country located on the western coast of Africa. [137] In the dry northeast corner of the country lies Lake Chad, which Nigeria shares with Niger, Chad and Cameroon. Nigeria also supported several Pan-African and pro-self government causes in the 1970s, including garnering support for Angola's MPLA, SWAPO in Namibia, and aiding opposition to the minority governments of Portuguese Mozambique, and Rhodesia. Explore Nigeria Using Google Earth: Most Yoruba live in Nigeria. Omissions? The origin of the name Niger, which originally applied to only the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. It has a compact area of 923,768 square kilometers (356,376 square miles). [150] As of 2016, efforts to manage the exposure are ongoing. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The attack on the city, which is located in central Nigeria, revealed that the group is extending its reach outside its stronghold in the north. August 13, 1990, "Nigeria, Military Faces Daunting Challenges", AP Press International, 3. [86] Buhari promised major reforms, but his government fared little better than its predecessor. The Nok civilization of Nigeria flourished between 1,500 BC and AD 200. [158] Rubber is the second-largest non-oil foreign exchange earner. The Lake Chad basin and the coastal areas, including the Niger River delta and the western parts of the Sokoto region in the far northwest, are underlain by soft, geologically young sedimentary rocks. [62][54], Following World War II, in response to the growth of Nigerian nationalism and demands for independence, successive constitutions legislated by the British government moved Nigeria toward self-government on a representative and increasingly federal basis. Updates? Its last period of military rule ended in 1999 following the sudden death of former dictator Sani Abacha in 1998. Aside from plant invaders, Rattus rattus and Avian influenza virus were also considered IAS in Nigeria. In reality, money is taken out instead, and/or large fees (which seem small in comparison with the imaginary wealth he awaits) are deducted. The empire with Arabic as its official language grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent out invading armies in every direction. Afan Music was invented and popularised by the Ewu-born poet and musician Umuobuarie Igberaese. Since then, the Nigerian military has been deployed across West Africa, curbing terrorism in countries like Mali, Senegal, Chad, and Cameroon, as well as dealing with the Mali War, and getting Yahya Jammeh out of power in 2017. Sudan savannah is similar but with shorter grasses and shorter trees. Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball, cricket and track and field. [154] Fiscal year 2016 was characterized by currency depreciation and the attendant higher prices of petroleum products, electricity, and imported foods pushed inflation to 18.55% in December 2016 from 9.55% in December 2015. Characteristic landforms in this region include oxbow lakes, river meander belts (see meander), and prominent levees. [301], Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. There the vegetation provides humus and protects it from erosion by heavy rainfall. [81] As head of state, Obasanjo vowed to continue Murtala's policies. Since 1995, the Nigerian military, through ECOMOG mandates, have been deployed as peacekeepers in Liberia (1997), Ivory Coast (1997–1999), and Sierra Leone (1997–1999). In the period before 1983 election, a report of experts prepared by the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies showed that only the 1959 and 1979 elections were held without systematic rigging. a previously counted 61% of the population living in poverty in 2012. Around 42.5% of the population were 14 years or younger, 19.6% were aged 15–24, 30.7% were aged 25–54, 4.0% aged 55–64, and 3.1% aged 65 years or older. When elections were held in 1965, the Nigerian National Democratic Party came to power in Nigeria's Western Region. However, Babangida annulled the elections, leading to massive civilian protests that effectively shut down the country for weeks. km (356,669 sq mi), extending 1,127 km (700 mi) E–W and 1,046 km (650 mi) N–S. First-year entry requirements into most universities in Nigeria include: Minimum of SSCE/GCE Ordinary Level Credits at a maximum of two sittings; Minimum cut-off marks in Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Entrance Examination (JAMB) of 180 and above out of a maximum of 400 marks are required. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? As oil revenues fueled the rise of federal subsidies to states, the federal government became the centre of political struggle and the threshold of power in the country. The nation's cadet team from Japan '93 produced some international players notably Nwankwo Kanu, a two-time African Footballer of the year who won the European Champions League with Ajax Amsterdam and later played with Inter Milan, Arsenal, West Bromwich Albion and Portsmouth. Nigeria is greatly endowed with numerous tree species of which the majority of them are native while few are exotic. Other players who graduated from the junior teams are Nduka Ugbade, Jonathan Akpoborie, Victor Ikpeba, Celestine Babayaro, Wilson Oruma and Taye Taiwo. Nigeria's Delta region, home of the large oil industry, experiences serious oil spills and other environmental problems, which has caused conflict. [16][17][18] It has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with nearly half its population under the age of eighteen. This remnant became known as "Sokoto Sultanate Council". As of 2014[update] it is the largest economy in Africa, having overtaken South Africa. This caused controversy ECOWAS, citing France Co-opting African Unity and if ratified, would lead to a loss of sovereignty. According to the official May 2010 FIFA World Rankings, Nigeria was the second top-ranked football nation in Africa and the 21st highest in the world. [8][9][10] The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa–Fulani in the north, Yoruba in the west, and Igbo in the east, together comprising over 60% of the total population. Nigeria backed the African National Congress (ANC) by taking a committed tough line with regard to the South African government and their military actions in southern Africa. It is a landlocked nation located in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres of the Earth. In the southeast, it also shares a border with the … Between 1990 and 2000, Nigeria lost an average of 409,700 hectares of forest every year equal to an average annual deforestation rate of 2.4%. [202], Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. The country Nigeria is located on the continent of Africa. In a national television address in 2007, he added that if Nigerians did not like the victory of his handpicked successor, they would have an opportunity to vote again in four years. [156] Agriculture used to be the principal foreign exchange earner of Nigeria. [192], The United Nations estimates that the population in 2018 was at 195,874,685[194][195], distributed as 51.7% rural and 48.3% urban, and with a population density of 167.5 people per square kilometre. As Africa's most populated country, Nigeria has repositioned its military as a peacekeeping force on the continent. Nigeria used part of its oil profits to pay the residual 40%, freeing up at least $1.15 billion annually for poverty reduction programmes. Nigeria is not only large in area—larger than the U.S. state of Texas—but also Africa’s most populous country. The 1983 military coup d'état took place on New Year's Eve of that year. The New Helmsmen. [173] Many festivals are held in Lagos; festivals vary in offerings each year and may be held in different months. [108], Ethnocentrism, tribalism, religious persecution, and prebendalism have plagued Nigerian politics both prior and subsequent to independence in 1960. Various juntas have seized control of the country and ruled it through most of its history. [136] Nigeria lies between latitudes 4° and 14°N, and longitudes 2° and 15°E. [219] However, in a report released by Pew Research Center in 2015, the Muslim population was estimated to be 50%, and by 2060, according to the report, Muslims will account for about 60% of the country. [299], There are many festivals in Nigeria, some of which date to the period before the arrival of the major religions in this ethnically and culturally diverse society. Guinean forest-savanna mosaic is plains of tall grass interrupted by trees. Britain intervened in the Lagos Kingship power struggle by bombarding Lagos in 1851, deposing the slave trade friendly Oba Kosoko, helping to install the amenable Oba Akitoye, and signing the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos on 1 January 1852. Nicole Rupp, Peter Breunig & Stefanie Kahlheber, ". Nigeria suffers from lack of adequate transportation infrastructure. It was equipped with 0.3 megapixel and 5 megapixel cameras, and with the rest of the satellite fleet took images of Nigeria. Located at the extreme inner corner of the Gulf of Guinea on the west coast of Africa, Nigeria occupies an area of 923,768 sq. Under a law signed in early 2014,[288] same-sex couples who marry face up to 14 years each in prison. [259][260] In the 2010 Jos riots, more than 500 people were killed by religious violence. Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement. The 1963 census indicated that 47% of Nigerians were Muslim, 34% Christian, and 18% members of local indigenous religions. [282] Yet husbands continue to dictate the votes for many women in Nigeria, which upholds the patriarchal system.[283]. In November 2008, Nigeria's music scene (and that of Africa) received international attention when MTV hosted the continent's first African music awards show in Abuja. Nigerians are nearly equally divided into Muslims and Christians, with a tiny minority of adherents of Traditional African religions and other religions. It is a federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states, offences such as alcohol consumption, homosexuality,[285] infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences, including amputation, lashing, stoning and long prison terms. Ikeja replaced Lagos as the state capital, and Abuja replaced Lagos as the federal capital. The president is both head of state and head of the federal government; the leader is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two four-year terms. Nestlé Nigeria PLC is one of the largest food and beverage companies in Africa. These include the Redeemed Christian Church of God, Winners' Chapel, Christ Apostolic Church (the first Aladura Movement in Nigeria), Living Faith Church Worldwide, Deeper Christian Life Ministry, Evangelical Church of West Africa, Mountain of Fire and Miracles, Christ Embassy, Lord's Chosen Charismatic Revival Movement, Celestial Church of Christ, and Dominion City. Nigeria is bordered to the north by Niger, to the east by Chad and Cameroon, to the south by the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean, and to the west by Benin. It supported movements against white minority governments in the Southern Africa sub-region. [270] Its southern coast is on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. It contributed about 1.4% to Nigeria's economy; this was attributed to the increase in the number of quality films produced and more formal distribution methods. Hydromorphic and organic soils, confined largely to areas underlain by sedimentary rocks along the coast and river floodplains, are the youngest soil types. It currently has an indigenous vehicle manufacturing company, Innoson Motors, which manufactures saloon cars, rapid transit buses, ambulances, firefighting trucks and SUVs. With the majority of Nigeria's populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain indigenous languages. A process of voting was adopted, referred to as Option A4. [120] One exception to the African focus was Nigeria's close relationship developed with Israel throughout the 1960s. [143], Many other species native to Nigeria, including Soybean and its varieties, serve as an important source of oil and protein in this region. [147] That year, 12.2%, the equivalent of 11,089,000 hectares had been forested in the country. [197] By 2100 the UN estimates that the Nigerian population will be between 505 million and 1.03 billion people (middle estimate: 730 million). Its coast lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the south and it borders Lake Chad to the northeast. [271] 39% of girls are married before age 15, although the Marriage Rights Act banning marriage of girls below 18 years of age was introduced on a federal level in 2008. After that illegal smugglers purchased slaves along the coast by native slavers. [256] These scams involve a complicit Nigerian bank (the laws being set up loosely to allow it) and a scammer who claims to have money he needs to obtain from that bank. [152] Nigeria is the United States' largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports). In the 2015 presidential election, former military head of state General Muhammadu Buhari, leader of the CPC faction of the APC – who had previously contested in the 2003, 2007, and 2011 presidential elections as the APC presidential candidate defeated incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan of the People's Democratic Party (PDP) by over two million votes, ending the party's sixteen year rule in the country, and marking the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate. ", "Economic and Financial Crimes Commission – EFCC – Home", "2002:Riots force Miss World out of Nigeria", "Nigeria: We Are Responsible for Borno Killings, Says Boko Haram", "Suspected Boko Haram fighters kill 65 in attack on funeral in Nigeria", "Islamic State group in Nigeria kills 20 soldiers, displaces 1,000 people", "Nigeria: Hundreds killed and churches burned in latest Fulani massacre", "Death toll from northwest Nigeria attack doubles to 130", "Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women", "Failure to pass equality bill betrays Nigerian women, activists say", "Refworld – Nigeria: Prevalence of forced marriage, particularly in Muslim and Yoruba communities; information on legislation, including state protection; ability of women to refuse a forced marriage", "Nigeria's child brides: 'I thought being in labour would never end, "Nigeria: Child brides facing death sentences a decade after child marriage prohibited", "Women and Land Rights Reforms in Nigeria", "Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) – Data", "Nigeria's female genital mutilation ban is important precedent, say campaigners", "In Nigeria, neglected women bear the shame of fistulas", "Women and the Informal Sector in Nigeria: Implications for Development", "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death", "Nigeria's president signs law imposing up to 14 years' jail for gay relationships, "Shocking photos of starving 'witch' toddler inspire massive donations", "AP/CNN: MTV launches first-ever African music award show", "Nigerian films try to move upmarket: Nollywood's new scoreboard", "Toronto: Nigerians disagree over new Nollywood", "Hello Nollywood: how Nigeria became Africa's biggest economy overnight", "Nollywood helps Nigeria kick South Africa's economic butt", "TB Joshua – 21st Century Prophet in Our Midst? The Niger River, for which the country is named, and the Benue, its largest tributary, are the principal rivers. The main Muslim and Christian festivals are often celebrated in ways that are unique to Nigeria or unique to the people of a locality. In April 2015, Nigeria began talks with Russia's state-owned Rosatom to collaborate on the design, construction and operation of four nuclear power plants by 2035, the first of which will be in operation by 2025. During the oil boom of the 1970s, Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt to finance major infrastructural investments. [261], Between 2011 and 2018, Boko Haram has been responsible for more than 37,000 deaths in the region. ", OQTM – Nigeria celebrates 'greatest' victory, "Nigeria bobsled women qualify for Winter Olympics", "Why Nigeria produces Scrabble champions", "And The No. Fredrick Lugard abolished the Caliphate, but retained the title Sultan as a symbolic position in the newly organized Northern Nigeria Protectorate. [281] Women throughout the country were only politically emancipated in 1979. After negotiations by the Nigerian authorities, in October 2005 Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors reached an agreement under which Nigeria repurchased its debt at a discount of approximately 60%. The median age in 2017 was 18.4 years. Nigeria has additionally founded regional cooperative efforts in West Africa, functioning as standard-bearer for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and ECOMOG, economic and military organizations, respectively. However, a major breakthrough came in December 2014, when it was reported that Nigeria had recorded zero polio cases in six months. [289], Muhammad al-Amin al-Kanemi, the Shehu of Borno. [139] In the Sahel region, rain is less than 500 millimetres (20 in) per year and the Sahara Desert is encroaching. [175] Ogun is considered to be Nigeria's current industrial hub, as most factories are located in Ogun and more companies are moving there, followed by Lagos. His regime was overthrown by another military coup in 1985. Nigeria's best-known writers are Wole Soyinka, the first African Nobel Laureate in Literature, and Chinua Achebe, best known for the novel Things Fall Apart (1958) and his controversial critique of Joseph Conrad. [112][113] The two major political parties are the People's Democratic Party of Nigeria and the All Progressives Congress with twenty minor opposition parties are registered. [99][100] Goodluck Jonathan served as acting president of Nigeria until 16 April 2011, when a new presidential election in Nigeria was conducted. [110] Kin-selective altruism has made its way into Nigerian politics, resulting in tribalist efforts to concentrate Federal power to a particular region of their interests through.[111]. 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