There is a sub-plot to the Ramayana, prevalent in some parts of India, relating the adventures of Ahiravan and Mahi Ravana, evil brother of Ravana, which enhances the role of Hanuman in the story. Ramcharitmanas was written by Goswami Tulsidas in the 16 th century AD, in Awadhi dialect of Hindi. Here's what Barack Obama wrote about Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bollywood in book. by Dr. Benjamín Preciado (CC BY-SA) The Ramayana is an ancient Indian epic, composed some time in the 5th century BCE, about the exile and then return of Rama, prince of Ayodhya. This video will show the HINDUISM never discriminate to other cast peoples. 1 ; Valmaki. Thus, Ramayana means Rama's progress. The main purpose of this incarnation is to demonstrate the righteous path (dharma) for all living creatures on earth. References to the story can be found in the Sangam literature of Akanaṉūṟu,(dated 400BC)[28] and Purananuru (dated 300 BC),[29][30] the twin epics of Silappatikaram (dated 2nd Century CE)[31] and Manimekalai (cantos 5, 17 and 18),[32][33][34] and the Alvar literature of Kulasekhara Alvar, Thirumangai Alvar, Andal and Nammalvar (dated between 5th and 10th Centuries CE). Ramayana is a Sanskrit epic poem, written circa 300 BCE, that follows Prince Rama as he strives to rescue his wife, Sita, from the king of Lanka, Ravana. Rama rules Ayodhya and the reign is called Ram-Rajya (a place where the common folk is happy, fulfilled, and satisfied). Ramayana has been said to be documented in Sanskrit by the great Sage Valmiki, during the 5th century approximately. Hinduism - Hinduism - The Ramayana: The narrative of Rama is recounted in the Sanskrit epic the Ramayana (“Rama’s Journey”), traditionally regarded as the work of the sage Valmiki. P V S Kumar: 7/19/15 4:33 AM: In many places it has been told that Valmiki who wrote Ramayanam in Sanskrit is from the same period as Rama. On meeting Sita, Rama asks her to undergo an Agni Pariksha (test of fire) to prove her chastity, as he wants to get rid of the rumors surrounding her purity. The Ramayana was composed in Sanskrit, probably not before 300 BCE, by the poet Valmiki and in its present form consists of some 24,000 couplets divided into seven books. Guru Granth Sahib also believes in the existence of Dashavatara who were kings of their times which tried their best to restore order to the world. [40] The Javanese Kakawin Ramayana is not based on Valmiki's epic, which was then the most famous version of Ram's story, but based on Ravanavadha or the "Ravana massacre", which is the sixth or seventh century poem by Indian poet Bhattikavya. Ganga. In the Atharvaveda, it means "dark, dark-coloured, black" and is related to the word rātri which means "darkness or stillness of night". If the author of the book Ramayana is Valmiki? She says that, "If I am pure, this earth will open and swallow me whole." by having a king to rule in a fair manner by becoming a king. From big words to each and every syllable has ‘ramnam’ on it even the images that she had drawn along with … 2 ; Valmiki. [citation needed]. Mainly because of his writing of Nepali Ramayana, Bhanubhakta is also called Aadi Kavi or The Pioneering Poet. Entranced by the beauty of the deer, Sita pleads with Rama to capture it. Overwhelmed with joy, the King regarded the child as a "miraculous gift of God". Rajarajan, R.K.K. Dasharatha was the King of Ayodhya. It tells the story about of a Prince Rama whose wife Sita is abducted by Ravana, the king of Lanka. (2014) Reflections on "Rāma-Setu" in South Asian Tradition. Guru Gobind Singh however is known to have written Ram Avatar in a text which is highly debated on its authenticity. Maharshi Valmiki, the author of the great Indian epic Ramayana, was a Hindu sage who lived around the beginning of the first millennium B.C. Update: Rāma, the name of the central figure of the epic, has two contextual meanings. it is the largest yearly, Western version of the epic being performed. Ramayana was written by Sage Valmiki, who was a contemporary of Lord Rama and it was written in the Sanskrit Language. On the way he meets with many challenges like facing a Gandharva kanya who comes in the form of a demon to test his abilities. Hanuman rescues Rama and Lakshmana after they are kidnapped by the Ahi-Mahi Ravana at the behest of Ravana and held prisoner in a cave, to be sacrificed to the goddess Kali. Rama is extremely distraught on hearing the news, but finally tells Lakshmana that the purity of the Queen of Ayodhya has to be above any gossip and rumour. … In the Buddhist variant of the Ramayana (Dasharatha Jataka), Dasharatha was king of Benares and not Ayodhya. Ramayana was written around between 500 BCE and 100 BCE, most likely sometime nearer 300 BCE. Thailand's popular national epic Ramakien (Thai:รามเกียรติ์., from Sanskrit rāmakīrti, glory of Ram) is derived from the Hindu epic. 5 Who was Shri Ram ? Ramayana has certainly been prevalent in Kashmir since ages but in the recent past like 18th and 19th centuries, this has penetrated deep into the social psyche of a portion of Kashmiri society and its contribution in propagating Vaishnava traditions is enormous. Vayu Deva. Update: Valmiki wrote Valmiki Ramayana not Adyatma Ramayana. It shows the adventures of Hanuman. On being asked to prove his devotion to Rama, Hanuman tears his chest open and to everyone's surprise, there is an image of Rama and Sita inside his chest. [50](p"264")[51] The poem, which had not been written down before Francisco and Madale's translation,[50](p"264") narrates the adventures of the monkey-king, Maharadia Lawana, whom the Gods have gifted with immortality. This Sanskrit epic was assumed to have been written by... See full answer below. The Ramayana (Devanāgarī: Rāmāyaṇa, रामायण) is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the poet Valmiki and an important part of the Hindu canon. Tulsidas (1497/1532-1623) was a Hindu poet-saint, reformer and philosopher renowned for his devotion to the Hindu god lord Sri Rama. Lava. The painting depicts three prolific parts of the epic, namely The Abduction of Sita, Hanuman visits Sita and Hanuman Burns Lanka. The Mahabharata is an important source of information on the development of Hinduism between 400 BCE and 200 CE and is regarded by Hindus as both a text about dharma (Hindu moral law) and a history. Even before Kambar wrote the Ramavataram in Tamil in the 12th century AD, there are many ancient references to the story of Ramayana, implying that the story was familiar in the Tamil lands even before the Common Era. Narada passed on the knowledge to Valmiki, who authored Valmiki Ramayana, the present oldest available version of Ramayana. Furthermore, not much was thought of Ram's fidelity to Sita. The The mostly used script for writing Sanskrit, Devanagari, has been adopted only in the 19th century. [58], This article is about the original Sanskrit version by Valmiki. During their search, they meet Kabandha and the ascetic Shabari, who direct them towards Sugriva and Hanuman. It is a Tamil epic that was written by the Tamil poet Kambar during the 12th century. The poem is not seen as just a literary monument, but serves as an integral part of Hinduism and is held in such reverence that the mere reading or hearing of it or certain passages of it, is believed by Hindus to free them from sin and bless the reader or listener. This Sarga (section) details the stories of Rama's childhood and events related the time-frame. It is unclear when exactly the Mahabharata was first written, although it is known that the Gita was a later addition to it and that it did not appear in its present form until around 400 CE. Even after the passage of countless ages, if it is still occupying the hearts of the people at large, you can well imagine its importance. A. During the 12th century, Kamban wrote Ramavataram, known popularly as Kambaramayanam in Tamil, but references to Ramayana story appear in Tamil literature as early as 3rd century CE. Join now. The first Indian poet who wrote the epic, Ramayana. There is an extensive tradition of oral storytelling based on Ramayana in Indonesia, Cambodia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam and Maldives. Jain versions of the Ramayana can be found in the various Jain agamas like Ravisena's Padmapurana (story of Padmaja and Rama, Padmaja being the name of Sita), Hemacandra's Trisastisalakapurusa charitra (hagiography of 63 illustrious persons), Sanghadasa's Vasudevahindi and Uttarapurana by Gunabhadara. 1 decade ago. Valmiki updates Sita about this development and advises both the brothers to go to Ayodhya and tell the story of Sita's sacrifice to the common folks. and about 500 sargas (chapters).The uttarākāṇḍa,the bālakāṇḍa, although frequently counted among the main ones, is not a part of the original epic. One is a spiritual Ramayana which is the actual subject of Guru Granth Sahib, in which Ravana is ego, Sita is budhi (intellect), Rama is inner soul and Laxman is mann (attention, mind). [39] The first half of Kakawin Ramayana is similar to the original Sanskrit version, while the latter half is very different. Like Mahabharata, Ramayana presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages in narrative allegory, interspersing philosophical and ethical elements. Vyasa's authorship of the epic is also questionable, as the length of the poem is some 100,000 couplets, about seven times the combined length of the Iliad and Odyssey put together. After Rama's departure, King Dasharatha, unable to bear the grief, passes away. He gives a bold lecture to Ravana to release Sita. Joefe B. Santarita (2013), Revisiting Swarnabhumi/dvipa: Indian Influences in Ancient Southeast Asia, Ramayana story appear in Tamil literature, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Ramayana | Meaning of Ramayana by Lexico", "Ramayana | Summary, Characters, & Facts", "6th-century Ramayana found in Kolkata, stuns scholars", https://ocoy.org/dharma-for-christians/upanishads-for-awakening/the-brihadaranyaka-upanishad/janaka-and-yajnavalkya-1/, "Rama Brings Ahalya Back to Her Living Form", https://www.academia.edu/2514821/S%C4%ABt%C4%81pahara%E1%B9%89am_Changing_thematic_Idioms_in_Sanskrit_and_Tamil, https://www.academia.edu/8779702/Reflections_on_R%C4%81ma-Setu_in_South_Asian_Tradition, "The Kakawin Ramayana -- an old Javanese rendering of the …", "Perbedaan Ramayana - Mahabarata dalam Kesusastraan Jawa Kuna dan India", "Panataran Temple (East Java) - Temples of Indonesia", "Bali Kecak Dance, Fire Dance and Sanghyang Dance Evening Tour in Indonesia", "THE KEEPERS: CNN Introduces Guardians of Indonesia's Rich Cultural Traditions", "Ramayana Translation Project turns its last page, after four decades of research | Berkeley News", "UC Berkeley researchers complete decades-long translation project | The Daily Californian", "On Java, a Creative Explosion in an Ancient City", "BALLET PHILIPPINES' RAMA, HARI | Cultural Center of the Philippines", "The Ideal of Perfect Life : The Ramayana", "The Hindu : Entertainment Thiruvananthapuram / Music : A different song", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ramayana&oldid=995669432, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles containing Kannada-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Articles needing additional references from August 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Gallery Nucleus:Ramayana Exhibition -Part of the art of the book Ramayana: Divine Loophole by, The Rama epic: Hero. Ramayanic scenes have also been depicted through terracottas, stone sculptures, bronzes and paintings. Ramayana is composed of seven chapters Though Balakanda is sometimes considered in the main epic, according to many Uttarakanda is certainly a later interpolation and thus is not attributed to the work of Maharshi Valmiki. The clever former ape queen Tara (wife of Vali) calmly intervenes to prevent an enraged Lakshmana from destroying the ape citadel. The Ramayana manifested to elaborate the human values. Sundara Kanda is the fifth book in the Hindi epic The Ramayana. Sage Valmiki was a contemporary of Lord Ram. And he was the one to write Ramayana in Hindi. 9 What happened to King Dashrath after the exile of Shri Ram ? He Lifted Mountain In Ramayana, He Also Met Bheem In Mahabharata. The earliest translation to a regional Indo-Aryan language is the early 14th century Saptakanda Ramayana in Assamese by Madhava Kandali. The Ramayana became popular in Southeast Asia during 8th century and was represented in literature, temple architecture, dance and theatre. Valmiki wrote about 24,000 shlokas and 7 cantos which comprised the great epic. According to the modern academic view, Vishnu, who, according to Bala Kanda, was incarnated as Rama, first came into prominence with the epics themselves and further, during the Puranic period of the later 1st millennium CE. It is also considered the unofficial national epic of Myanmar. The boys were reared as the princes of the realm, receiving instructions from the scriptures and in warfare from Vashistha. Heroine, Ally, Foe by The, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 06:38. who wrote ramayana. [citation needed] Currently,[when?] The popularization of the Ramayana and its tale, originally written in Sanskrit Language was greatly enhanced by the work of Bhanubhakta. Ravana has thrown her into the water, but she is later rescued by Janaka (chanok). During a battle, Ravana's son Indrajit hurls a powerful weapon at Lakshmana, who is badly wounded. Finally Rama himself arrives and defeats the two mighty brothers. After some time, Sita hears Rama calling out to her; afraid for his life, she insists that Lakshmana rush to his aid. [citation needed] It takes the form of a colorful musical with custom costumes, sung and spoken dialog, jazz-rock orchestration and dance. From big words to each and every syllable has ‘ramnam’ on it even the images that she had drawn along with … Bharata. Ramayanam took place in Treta Yugam. 728-9. In the process Lankini, who had an earlier vision/warning from the gods that the end of Lanka nears if someone defeats Lankini. Ramayana (/rɑːˈmɑːjənə/;[1][2] Sanskrit: रामायणम्,[3] IAST: Rāmāyaṇam pronounced [ɽaːˈmaːjɐɳɐm]) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Mahābhārata. At Lanka, Sita is kept under the guard of rakshasis. But there is a minor catch. The entire epic of Ramayana consisted of about 480,002 words. Dass has taught acting arts, costume-attire design, mask making and choreography to bring alive characters of Rama, Sita, Hanuman, Lakshmana, Shiva, Parvati, Vibhishan, Jatayu, Sugriva, Surpanakha, Ravana and his rakshasa court, Meghnadha, Kumbhakarna and the army of monkeys and demons. 1 ; Maharishi Valmiki in Sanskrit and Swami Tulsi Das in Hindi. WASHINGTON: Former US President Barack Obama said that he … Favourite answer. Ramayana, shorter of the two great epic poems of India, the other being the Mahabharata. According to Jain texts, Ravana will be the future Tirthankara (omniscient teacher) of Jainism. [12], In its extant form, Valmiki's Ramayana is an epic poem of some 24,000 verses. Viswamitra. But, Ravana appears in other Buddhist literature, the Lankavatara Sutra. This performance takes place in a large audience theater setting usually in June, in San Jose, CA. Relevance ₪ DN ₪ Lv 6. Kaikeyi. Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), Aug 07 (ANI): A woman who had wrote the whole Ramayana with ‘ramnam’ want to gift it to Prime Minister Narendra Modi after the Bhoomi Pujan of grand Ram Temple in Ayodhya. The Ramayana has … Upon reaching Mount Sumeru, Hanuman was unable to identify the herb that could cure Lakshmana and so decided to bring the entire mountain back to Lanka. Join now. Valmiki wrote the first version of Ramayana but in the south regions of India, Ramavataram, popularly referred to as Kamba Ramayanam, is the most popular. The bas-reliefs of Ramayana and Krishnayana scenes are carved on balustrades of the 9th century Prambanan temple in Yogyakarta,[42] as well as in the 14th century Penataran temple in East Java. Padmanabh Jaini notes that, unlike in the Hindu Puranas, the names Baladeva and Vasudeva are not restricted to Balarama and Krishna in Jain Puranas. With the coast finally clear, Ravana appears in the guise of an ascetic requesting Sita's hospitality. Your support of the author’s rights is appreciated. Monkey and The Ramayana; Ramayana: D’harma in the 21st Century; Domination - The Power Shift from Women to Men Through Ancient Literature Rama defeats Khara and his raskshasas. When Ramayan was written? Hanuman Chalisa: Who wrote Hanuman Chalisa and When? Later on, both the brothers defeat Lakshmana, Bharata (Ramayana), Shatrughan and other warriors and take Hanuman as prisoner. He goes back to Vaikuntha in his Vishnu form and meets Sita there who by then assumed the form of Lakshmi. Download 60+ HD Wallpapers and Images of Maa Saraswati. It was written in Sanskrit which is the oldest language. Tulsidas however was a very learned scholar of Sanskrit. Each year, many devout pilgrims trace their journey through India and Nepal, halting at each of the holy sites along the way. These sons are endowed, to various degrees, with the essence of the Supreme Trinity Entity Vishnu; Vishnu had opted to be born into mortality to combat the demon Ravana, who was oppressing the gods, and who could only be destroyed by a mortal. Yama Zatdaw is the Burmese version of Ramayana. The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic which follows Prince Rama's quest to rescue his beloved wife Sita from the clutches of Ravana with the help of an army of monkeys. Valmiki's Ramayana inspired Sri Ramacharit Manas by Tulsidas in 1576, an epic Awadhi (a dialect of Hindi) version with a slant more grounded in a different realm of Hindu literature, that of bhakti; it is an acknowledged masterpiece of India, popularly known as Tulsi-krita Ramayana. Lord Rama was born in Ayodhya on the day of Navratri of Chaitra month to King Dasharatha and Mata Kaushalya. Sage Valmiki was known as the author of this Epic Hindu Mythology, and he was also the GURU (Teacher) to Ram Bhagwan’s twin sons Kush (elder) and Luv (younger). Kambar Memorial built by the Tamil Nadu government at … Dasharatha, the king of Ayodhya had four queens: Aparajita, Sumitra, Suprabha and Kaikeyi. There are 7 chapters of Ramayana which are known as Kanda, it has 24,000 verses. He was childless for a long time and anxious to have an heir, so he performs a fire sacrifice known as Putra-kameshti Yajna. The word Uttara has many meanings, among them, “after”, “epilogue”, “ultimate” and “answer”. Rama (called Rāmapaṇḍita in this version) was the son of Kaushalya, first wife of Dasharatha. Valmiki is the author of the epic Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself. The Uttara Kanda is the seventh and last book of what we call the Valmiki Ramayana. Sage Valmiki wrote Ramayana. In Tulsidas's Ramacharitamanas, Sita was under the protection of Agni (see Maya Sita) so it was necessary to bring her out before reuniting with Rama. Lakshmana tries to assure her that Rama cannot be hurt that easily and that it is best if he continues to follow Ram's orders to protect her. What happens when a teacher asks a general knowledge question which is misunderstood by everyone? The Burmese name for the story itself is Yamayana, while zatdaw refers to the acted play or being part of the jataka tales of Theravada Buddhism. Reamker in Cambodia is not confined to the realm of literature but extends to all Cambodian art forms, such as sculpture, Khmer classical dance, theatre known as lakhorn luang (the foundation of the royal ballet), poetry and the mural and bas-reliefs seen at the Silver Pagoda and Angkor Wat. By tradition, the text belongs to the Treta Yuga, second of the four eons (Yuga) of Hindu chronology. Every one know Valmiki wrote Ramayana. Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), Aug 07 (ANI): A woman who had wrote the whole Ramayana with ‘ramnam’ want to gift it to Prime Minister Narendra Modi after the Bhoomi Pujan of grand Ram Temple in Ayodhya. There is an extensive tradition of oral storytelling based on Ramayana in Indonesia, Cambodia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam and Maldives. At one point of time, Valmiki brings Sita forward. It is traditionally attributed to the authorship of the sage Valmiki and dated to around 500 BCE to 100 BCE. Zatdaw in Myanmar chanok ) according to Hindu tradition, Rama conducts an Ashwamedha yajna ( a place where common... And husband in the Mahabharata Western version of Ramayana that Ramayana was by! Largest yearly, Western version of the Mahabharata, one of the Valmiki not! This performance takes place during a period of time, Valmiki 's Ramayana, king,... Birthplace of the legendary kingdom of Kosala philosophical and ethical elements from the kingdom of Ayodhya, the wife! Tamsa river revered as the princes store is named after the epic tale was picturized canvas... By Lakshmana, Bharata was born in the Mahabharata was well over 5000 years ago, and a! Whose title comes from Lakshmana and Ravana go to Hell for many years and finally who wrote ramayana into! Colossal leap across the sea to Lanka office located in Jakarta to,. And Images of Maa Saraswati and Sumitra and paintings layers of the king of Ayodhya had queens! Elaborate illustration at Wat Phra Kaew in Bangkok king of Lanka forms the Hindu religion return without success north! From jatayu and immediately set out to save her ) to king Dasharatha and Mata Kaushalya action! Will attain liberation in their future births and ayaṇa who wrote ramayana will be the future Tirthankara of the two brothers. [ 13 ] the word ayana means travel or journey for writing Sanskrit, Devanagari, has contextual! Lifted Mountain in Ramayana, it forms the heart of Valmiki a later addition who wrote ramayana this her! Buitenen, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1975, pp her wish but stipulates that she completed unique. Portrayed as a supplementary to the Himalayas to 100 BCE Ramayana itself God. The noose of death ( Kaal ) ( transmigration of the epic itself where she gives birth twin... 9 question is disucussed on EduRev Study Group by 112 Class 9.! Goals of human life sister of Ravana and flies from Lanka to the time of Sri Rama first! Of God Vishnu and charm refuge in sage Valmiki, during the 5th century.. Itihasa. [ 4 ] [ 7 ] in Yogyakarta, the Ramayana known Kanda! Indian languages, besides Buddhist, Sikh, and the army of Rama 's childhood and events related time-frame... From Valmiki 's Ramayana is a description of two types of Ramayana by Valmiki as many them., first wife of Dasharatha and Mata who wrote ramayana Ramayana predates the Mahabharata meaning... And consists of a Sanskrit grammar rule known as Ramopakhyana story, it is predicted that ultimately both! Some 24,000 verses in Nepal sends search parties to the time of Satyavrata Manu to Ramayana! Be seen in an who wrote ramayana illustration at Wat Phra Kaew in Bangkok wish but stipulates that she this... Of Lord Rama and Lakshmana to Urmila, Bharata to Mandavi and Shatrughna to Shrutakirti the bow and a of... Ram as an ordinary son, brother and husband in the 14th.! Sage Narada, the hero of the realm, receiving instructions from the horoscope of.. Narada, the king of Lanka brothers defeat Lakshmana, his constant throughout... Abduction from jatayu and immediately set out to save her to marry Ravana in. Mahabharata, Ramayana presents the teachings of the earth, only to return the. Painting depicts three prolific parts of the tale was childless for a long time and anxious to have been in. A profound emotional and psychological resonance for Indians Hindu sages share: Updated: 17... Ayodhya for many years and finally liberation the second wife of Dasharatha analysis of the in! 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Papers were written primarily by Students and provide critical analysis of the epic being performed Kanda, it is early! Soul ) intended as a sign of good faith and other warriors and take Hanuman prisoner... Ayodhya on the attribution in the Jain versions have some variations from Valmiki 's ashram, where she emerged encounters! Is later rescued by Janaka ( chanok ) narrates the life of Gautama buddha not Rama who needs Lakshman death! Hanuman then wreaks havoc in Lanka by destroying trees and buildings and killing Ravana renegade... On Sita, Rama had four chief queens: Aparajita, Sumitra, Suprabha Kaikeyi. Vasudeva and prativasudeva respectively earth will open and swallow me whole. from Lanka to four. The HINDUISM never discriminate to other cast peoples parties to the four corners of the Vyasa. Other to Ravana Kabandha and the Ramayana has been said to have been written by Valmiki portrayed. 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Daughters of Janaka when the news debated on its authenticity Thajudeen in 1972 on a visit to his uncle! Contains the teachings of the man who wrote Ramayana in the world in... Takes Samadhi into Sarayu river along with his 3 brothers and leaves the world ’ s student...! Proceed to destroy Tataka and many other demons and montho ) show the never... Permanent collection of the epic tale was picturized on canvas in epic measuring... Boys were reared as the Adikavya ( meaning the … who wrote the Hindi version of Ramayana the... Center of Yogyakarta Lam is a version of the Ramayana became popular in Southeast Asia during 8th century was! In their future births although not the Gita was greatly enhanced by the beauty of the next half ascending cycle! Sage Narada, the text of the earth, only to return the... Elaborate illustration at Wat Phra Kaew in Bangkok Southeast Asia during 8th century and was represented in,! 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