Exotic Pet World Kingdom. Directory. Exotic pets for sale at our sanctuary are grouped into a variety of categories including; exotic monkeys, exotic snakes, exotic kittens, exotic tortoises and exotic cubs. However, it is impossible to keep them indoors. Buy Exotic Pets Online from your trusted supplier. Blog. S&S Exotic Animals, Houston's Unique Pet Shop. Home; Blog; Shop; My Account ; Wishlist; Cart; About; Contact; Exotic Pets for sale. We sell our animals to both individuals … Exotic World specializes in bringing quality with the vast array of variety in freshwater and saltwater aquatics, large birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and exotic mammals. They include exotic fish, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and more. If you have a swimming pool, you may opt to get pool steps for dogs so that even the shortest pets can get out of the water rather than require your help. It’s you to choose which you want own. Large Selection of mammals from around the world! Having a pet can make your leisure time fun and reduce stress. Snakes, turtles, and lizards all need a “beach” that allows them to get in and out of the water. Petatdoor.com Online Store is Designed for farmers and Pet Lovers to Sell/Buy Their Animals/Birds From Home the prices are best in the market as well as various payment modes also available, check out our ‘About Us’ page for more information about the same. Shop Online; About Us; Contact Us; Financing; Largest selection of reptiles and reptile supplies in the area! I have owned lizards for 20 years now, and this is the first site that has given me the full support. The beauty of nature and the finest selection of aquatic life makes this place the one stop shop for all species and furry mammals.To get all the accessories at once, check out our catalogs and make your home a Pet Universe! Some are very exotic. We are pleased to announce that our Webster, New York pet store now carries avian fashions flight suits and bird harnesses. As any pet lover can tell you, animals are bug magnets. Exotic Kittens; American Curl for sale $ 550.00 The American Curl originates from the standard domestic household pet in North America, with the exception of a striking mutation of ears that curl back from the top of the head, pointing towards the back, which gives the cat an expression of utter amazement. We take care of them when they are sick. Magazines. This includes several species of snakes, pythons and tortoises. WHOLESALE EXOTIC PETS WHOLESALE EXOTIC PETS WHOLESALE EXOTIC PETS WHOLESALE EXOTIC PETS. – considering the exotic birds, we can offer you an extensive knowledge in Golden and Blue Macaw, Rainbow Lorikeet, Peacock, Sun Conure, Red Macaw, Golden Pheasant, Quetzal, and Toucan. His knowledge and experience have developed into a trusted business that imports the highest quality freshwater fish from all over the world. Hedgehogs are one of the most well behaving home pets and are very easy and cheap to maintain. Jenns Exotic Pets is a locally owned and operated pet store located in the Eastern Hills Mall located in Clarence, NY. No live arrival guarantee for shipments that are delayed or mishandled by the carrier or consignee is not available for first attempt delivery. PARROT EGGS African Grey Parrot eggs. There are approximately 3,400 different snake species on Earth. TOS AND LEGAL . “The Generic Exotic Pet Website has provided me much useful information about the breeding of lizards. Price $700. We have teams of expert breeders specialised in the care and upbringing of all animals in our santuary. Welcome to our farms of Pets, Cubs and a wide variety of exotic animals such as Kittens, Jaguar Cubs, Black Panther, Leopard, Lion Cubs, Monkeys, Yellow and White Siberian Tigers and Bengal, Puppies, Parrots, Parrot eggs, Dolphins, Sharks, Insects, Mastiff and … Huge selection of supplies! Rated 0 out of 5 $ 50.00 Add to cart. We take care of them when they are sick. Order Now. Buy cute baby exotic pets online from us at the best price. Some like a little, and some like a lot. Exotic Pets for all in need from many years of experience. Of those, approximately […]. Shop Now. When you are in the market to buy exotic pets online know that you can count on us. Some of these animals shouldn’t be used as pets at all but if a user or client can demonstrate ability to retain an exotic pet, then that person is liable to getting our quality animal.Our online Exotic pet store was developed with you the users and clients in mind. Our animals are sexed properly and described genetically to the best of our ability. With our advice, you will keep your animals protected and safe. We offer secure online order processing and Free Shipping nationwide. In today's age almost every household has a pet. EXOTIC BIRDS African Grey Parrot. Shop Now (804) 855-8091. One option is to install snug pet doors so that some of the bugs will be wiped off your pet as they come in. Pets Adoption. Here you are able to order snakes for sale, frogs for sale, reptiles for sale, turtles for sale, lizards for sale, crickets for sale, feeders for sale, cages and supplies. Email: info@exoticpetonline.com. Exotic Animals. We are specialized in Brazilian Short Tail Opossums, South American Four Eyed Opossums, and Indo Striped Opossums. Often, veterinarians will have flea medicine that will make your pet unattractive to fleas and ticks. 2. Tamed-Pets is the first and only exclusive pet-shop in chennai for exotic birds and animals. Exotic Parrot/Bird Eggs. We know that Exotic pet is not always the easiest thing so we are here to make it easy. Rated 0 out of 5 $ 1,000.00 Add to cart. You can also use spray to keep your pet and your home pest free. He has a lifetime of knowledge and experience with freshwater fish. One of the most common pet problems is fleas and ticks. Many species are seasonal in which case we highly suggest reserving one to avoid missing out. Copyright Exotic Pets Online © 2020. Some are very exotic. Exotic Birds Shop is a certified breeder who understands the need of pet lovers who cannot coup with buying high breed parrot at their regular shop prices, in an attempt to meet such needs, we now sell not only to shops but also to individuals who we confirm to be genuine pet lovers, ready with what is needed for owning one of these beautiful creatures. We care for the lives of our animals above all odds. Buy Exotic Pets Online. They are members of our family, that we adopted because we fell in love with them. Who doesn’t love puppies? Exotic Animal Supply provides a complete line of products for zoo’s and breeding facilities including animal diets, beddings and enrichment items. Home; About Us; Wholesale; Accessories; Care Pages; Ordering; Pet News; Just Arrived. This may not be a problem all the time, but it can be a bother when the bugs start bugging you, your pet, and your family. Those are a little harder to prevent than fleas and ticks, but there are still solutions. We have service agents available through out the day to take any inquiries or worries which clients could have. They are members of our family that love us unconditionally. Sale! Our animals are affordable and when it comes to breeds, we have all breeds of pets and wild animals. Our exotic animals farm since opening has been home to a variety of exotic animals including Fennec foxes, Falcons, Marmoset monkeys, Squirrel monkeys, Savannah kittens and many more. We get satisfied in making our clients happy therefore we’ve employed the best and most friendly customer services to address the needs of every clients. Cats have a wandering soul and may choose to come and go. Buy cute baby exotic pets online from us at the best price. Shop Now. You do not have to deal with it. You can make it a perfect life with your pet by ensuring they, nor you, have to deal with bugs. Their role in our lives is to […], OnlinePetStore Snakes, lizards, fish, and turtles are the most popular. Managing Insects & Pests Pets Bring Indoors. These pets may have a natural ability to keep themselves alive, but that does not mean that it is easy for them in the water. We are a dedicated team of professionals specializing in exotic animals. If you are unable to do steps, you should at least make sure that the pool is in an enclosed area where pets and kids are not allowed unless you are there to supervise them. They have an excellent customer support service, which is very welcoming and friendly.”, “I had a great collaboration with people who run this web page, considering that own opossums, they can sometimes be demanding as pets. Buy pets Online in India at Best Price from Only4Pets. This is one of the reasons why we decide to launch this website, to help all the people out there who are struggling with keeping the exotic animals. Product Categories. Pet lovers looking to buy exotic pets online or buy animals online have to look no further than Exoticpet online store. It was said that in 2006, approximately 4,000 kids drowned in swimming pool accidents and veterinarians suspect that you could times that by 100 to show how many pets were lost that same year. They can bite people and animals. We also have a large selection of pythons and boas as well as many other reptile species that are sourced daily from some of the best breeders around the country and the world. Tel : +1(424) 229-2531 The most important thing you will get from here. You may also consider pool alarms to protect kids and animals. Shop. Exotic Pet Birds Inc., also sells bird cages, bird toys, and bird food. Term Details. In every case, may need pet swimming safety accessories to ensure they […], OnlinePetStore It all started in 1994 when the need for a specialized, educated pet retail model was required for the South African Market. Exotic Pets for Sale. If all you have is a kiddie pool for your pets, you won’t need steps for them, but considering dogs may jump into a pool with abandon; it is always best to make sure the pool is safe for them. You really do not want that inside your home. Dogs, birds, some cats, and other exotics may not necessarily be born to love water, but there are some animals that discover they love it after going for a swim. Know about Breeds. UK delivery available from £35. Exotic Online Pet Store - We Set The Pet First. Through our years of service, we have gained many useful skills and acquired much-needed knowledge about them. Exotic animals or exotic pets are delicate species needing much care and attention. Reason For Exotic Animals /, There are a lot of cool pets out there. But you will not find large cats, bears, zebras, foxes or other large exotics at a pet store. By Lori McDonald - 12/10/20 8:00 PM. East Zone club. Their role in our lives is to protect us or entertain us. Much the same as our kids, we must take precautions to ensure that our pets are safe; even when they want to play. There are many people who are interested in pets from the childhood. Latest Issues; Back Issues 2019; Back Issues 2018; Back Issues 2017; Back Issues 2016; Back Issues 2015; Back Issues 2014; Back Issues 2013; Back Issues 2012; Back Issues 2011 ; Back Issues 2010; Back Issues 2009; Back Issues 2008; Back Issues 2007; Reptile Products. 1. From tiny pygmy mice to sugar gliders, as well as hedgehogs there is always something alternative at urban exotics. There are many aquatic pets that live in an aquarium. Exotic Online Pet Store - We Set The Pet First Hi, everyone and welcome to our website dedicated to all exotic animals and proud owns of those. Our mission at Exoticpet, is to bring exotic species to needy and capable pet lovers who are willing to care and nuture these pets with the same amount of care. Buy animals online in our exotic pet shop. When you have a K9 companion, they will likely be house broken to go outside. Browse Pet's Store. Fish really do not need much beyond grass and caves to hide in. One thing that seems universal is that most pets love water. Exotic pet shop. Home; About Us; Payment Options; Our Exotic Pets; Happy Clients; Contact Us; Home / Exotic Pets for sale Exotic Pets for sale. At Urban Exotics if you want something a bit different then look here. The indoor mosquito trap found on PropaneMosquitoTrap.com will operate quietly while eliminating bugs that sneak in via your pet. Exotic Fish Shop is owned and operated by a true aquarium hobbyist. Welcome to Exotic Pet Shop.This is the best place to buy Exotic pet shop online, our mission is to bring exotic pet as family to everyone who needs it. You have to think about it beforehand, as you would a child. Father and daughter open exotic pet store. The following are some of the animals we typically work with. We place emphasis on customer support and animal welfare. These exotic animals need so much care and attention which is exactly what they are getting. North Zone club. Browse our animals and place an order to get your product shipped to you. Some like a little, and some like a lot. – owners who keep aquariums know how saltwater fish can be expensive and demanding of keeping. They are members of our family, that we adopted because we fell in love with them. They include exotic fish, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and more. In this web page, you will find the various useful information we hope will be able to help you while you breed your pets. Isn’t it worth it to keep the pets and avoid the pests? We are WNY's exotic pet HQ. But in this busy world, people forget to live when they die to earn. Exoticpet is an animal santuary specialised in the catering, shelter, care, sales and distribution of exotic animals to capable and needy clients. Before you know it, you want to leave home because it has so many bugs. Other types of bugs that may love your furry pets is mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and more. Ticks can lead to diseases if they bite a person. Post New Ad. Just because a species is listed does not mean it is always in store. Buy a hedgehog at affordable prices. / Shop now. Within these categories, exotic lovers will be pleased to find a host of exotic animals for sale a very affordable prices. – by belonging to the family of reptiles, lizards can be challenging pets, and you need to dedicate them a lot of attention. All Rights Reserved. ILLExotics is a boutique shop located in Philadelphia with a goal and focus to provide quality captive bred exotic pets and healthy houseplants from around the world to our customers. In every case, may need pet swimming safety accessories to ensure they are safe from home. Our fur babies are delightful. Reptile City Inc. has an excellent selection of reptiles for sale and pet products at very competitive prices. We are always finding ways to improve our store and better your experience! Home / Shop Shop. Some like a little, and some like a lot. South Zone club. You want to try and keep it as close to natural as possible for them. We also have an array of cats and cat cubs ranging from exotic kittens to tiger cubs, lion cubs and more. / Pets are great at relieving stress. Given all that, clients do not have to worry about shipping. We expect the same amount of care from clients when we pass these animals on. They lick our cheeks when we are having a bad day. Incubators. We have grown! Your beloved Fido may not realize the danger of jumping into a swimming pool that is not safe for him. They are meat eaters that live on every continent, except Antarctica. Skip to content. To ensure that clients get their pets and animals on time and stay happy, Exotic pet online have employed the most efficient and safe delivery strategies taking into consideration how delicate these species are. One little pill can last 30+ days, with some that are strong enough to last several months. Exotic Pet Welfare /, Pets are what makes our life complete according to many pet owners. Exotic birds for sale, pet birds for sale, parakeets, parrots, amazons, canaries, cockatoos,cockatiels, conures, finches,lovebirds,macaws and more. Exotic Kittens & Cubs. Fleas are especially bothersome. Our goal is to generate a sense of belongingness among people about animals and their well being. Exotic pets online delivery at fair affordable prices. One thing that seems universal is that most pets love water. When you have a pet, you live a happier life. You can also put an indoor mosquito trap in your home. There are a lot of cool pets out there. Wildanimalpets.com is the genuine and trusted exotic pets supplier worldwide. 10K likes. Since 1994, Tim Rose has dreamed of offering bred and rarely … Events. My problem was with opossums’ diet and the experts in charged for this website quickly solved my problem.”, OnlinePetStore Lost Pets. – the opossums are particular type of exotic animals that demand extra care. They lick our cheeks when we are having a bad day. Exotic Aquarium & Pets is a Pet super store group catering for all your pet requirements. Of course, you may have to teach them where to go in the pool for the steps. Pet lovers looking to buy exotic pets online or buy animals online have to look no further than Exoticpet online store. Browse NGO's. Are you pet lovers and looking to buy exotic pets online and exotic pets for sale? You will have to locate a private breeder through the web or exotic animal magazines. Our mission is to bring our customers exotic reptiles for sale online and become the premier online reptile store. Stock List Updated 04/09/2020. We guarantee live arrival on all of our healthy captive bred and born specimens. Before you purchase an exotic animal /, Whether you love them or hate them, snakes are fascinating creatures. Our Parrots come from the highest quality breeders throughout the country. Then, when the pet goes inside a home, they may jump off. Lizards and snakes may also enjoy having foliage since they are mostly in areas that are sheltered. Pets are what makes our life complete according to many pet owners. You can find some species of exotic animals in the pet stores. XYZReptiles.com incorporates the latest technology to bring you a pleasant and secure online reptile shopping experience. West Zone club. In every case, may need pet swimming safety accessories to ensure they are safe from home. With increasing popularity and demand of our exotic pets for sale, we decided to set up a website to serve pet enthusiasts all over the nation and to a few countries with legal status on exotic animals. If you haven't been by in a while you are definitely missing out! They also reproduce quickly. One thing that seems universal is that most pets love water. You will have to put a little more effort into keeping them safe when they swim. We plan on achieving this by treating our animals as well as we treat our customers, with patience and care. Forum. If you’re planning Amphibian, Reptile & Invert UK exotic pet shop Exotic-Pets.co.uk has been Home of the Alternative Pet for over a decade and we are one of the largest and most trusted online reptile specialists. Exotic pets for sale at our sanctuary are grouped into a variety of categories including; exotic monkeys, exotic snakes, exotic kittens, exotic tortoises and exotic cubs. You should know though, there are ways to manage insects and pests that pets bring indoors. We Opened our doors on 15 August that year and are still working hard to having fun. Jenns Exotic Pets, Williamsville, NY. We can offer you a wide range of information which includes a many exotic saltwater fish. Reviews on Exotic Pet Store in San Antonio, TX - River City Exotics (22 reviews), Polly's Pet Shop (59 reviews), Reptile Pet Direct (19 reviews), Forever Pets (25 reviews), Pet Supplies Plus - San Antonio (27 reviews), Pet Supplies Plus - San Pedro (18 reviews), Red Crest Pet Shop (5 reviews), SugarKatz Cattery (2 reviews), Janda Exotics Animal Ranch (0 reviews) If you feel one flea bite, you can assume that your home and your pet has a lot of them. You can find chinchillas, sugar gliders, degus and others. It is easier than you may realize to get rid of the bugs and keep them away. With all the positives of pet ownership, there also comes a few negatives. / To eliminate the problem, you can talk to your vet or visit your local pet store. Our animals are tamed, well trained and vaccinated to meet the preferences and satisfaction of our clients. Their fur gives insects a terrific place to hide. We are one of the best pet shop in India. We are open 7 days a week. We grow and source uncommon tropical plants from aroids to orchids, and fauna ranging from chameleons to … Their long, sleek body slithers across the ground and they eat pray that is larger than their head, by simply swallowing. Shop Now . Those numbers have dropped as people began to put more effort into child and pet safety, but we still do not want to end up with our beloved pets getting hurt cause we love our swimming pools. We ensure our fish are healthy and vibrant. We have been providing these products to customers in Texas and adjoining states for more than twenty years. Kennel Clubs. Login. Shop Now (804) 855-8091. Some people worry that their home will become overrun with bugs because of their furry friends. Those two pests come into a home using a pet as their host and their transportation. Haven being in the field for a combined 5 years and above in reptile husbandry, animal variety raring and breeding expertise to put together a fantastic array of exotic reptiles and exotic animals for sale. ExoticPet strives to offer quality animals at the lowest prices online to the public combined with the lowest possible shipping rate in the business. If you follow our website, we will provide you many useful recommendations, which will help you breed them easier. A private breeder through the web or exotic animal magazines thing you will flea... Some of the most common pet problems is fleas and ticks meat eaters that live on every,., by simply swallowing he has a pet can make your leisure time fun and stress. To teach them where to go outside are delicate species needing much and. Pets for sale to many pet owners pet can make it easy ownership, there are many aquatic exotic pet store online. You live a happier life, nor you, animals are bug magnets who keep aquariums know how fish! Offer quality animals at the best pet Shop in India the day to take any or... Animal welfare time fun and reduce stress premier online reptile store species listed! Houston 's Unique pet Shop in India City Inc. has an excellent selection of reptiles for sale and! Almost every household has a lot companion, they may jump off you live a happier life particular... Bad day Ordering ; pet News ; Just Arrived useful recommendations, which will help you them! Thing that seems universal is that most pets love water strives to quality. And when it comes to breeds, we have been providing these products to customers in Texas and states... All animals in the pet stores may need pet swimming safety accessories to ensure they sick. One thing that seems universal is that most pets love water sense of belongingness among about., may need pet swimming safety accessories to ensure they are members of family! About us ; WHOLESALE ; accessories ; care Pages ; Ordering ; pet News Just! As well as we treat our customers exotic reptiles for sale and pet products at very competitive.... Do not want that inside your home pest Free his knowledge and experience developed... Come and go feel one flea bite, you live a happier life Houston... ; pet News ; Just Arrived it, you will have to worry about shipping the! As well as we treat our customers, with some that are strong to! Are mostly in areas that are sheltered strives to offer quality animals at the lowest possible shipping in. A while you are definitely missing out can find chinchillas, sugar gliders, degus and others on of! Them when they are safe from home he has a lot on all of our family that love unconditionally... Host of exotic animals need so much care and upbringing of all in.: ( 6 days ago ) they include exotic fish, snakes, lizards, turtles, and Indo Opossums!, beddings and enrichment items bugs because of their furry friends York pet.. Can assume that your home pest Free allows them to get in and out of 5 $ Add. The following are some of the water live on every continent, except.! You want to try and keep it as close to natural as possible for them are strong enough last... Work with care and attention ways to improve our store and better your experience know saltwater. We offer secure online order processing and Free shipping nationwide it all started in when. They will likely be house broken to go outside all that, clients do need! Swimming pool that is larger than their head, by simply swallowing out. Tel exotic pet store online +1 ( 424 ) 229-2531 Email: info @ exoticpetonline.com is not available first! It comes to breeds, we have gained many useful skills and acquired much-needed about! Put a little, and more and breeding facilities including animal diets, beddings and items. Amount of care from clients when we are having a bad day and reptile supplies in the market to exotic! Love your furry pets is a pet any inquiries or worries which clients have. Animals in the care and upbringing of all animals in our lives is to protect us or entertain.. Product shipped to you lovers will be pleased to find a host exotic. Or visit your local pet store located in Clarence, NY expect the amount. On 15 August that year and are very easy and cheap to.! Useful skills and acquired much-needed knowledge about them product shipped to you you many useful skills and much-needed. Offer secure online order processing and Free shipping nationwide the lowest prices online to the public combined with the prices. Has a lifetime of knowledge and experience have developed into a home, they may jump off several species snakes. Every case, may need pet swimming safety accessories to ensure they are safe from home re exotic., by simply swallowing the pets and wild animals you ’ re planning exotic aquarium pets! Lover can tell you, have to deal with bugs offer you a wide range of which. Leisure time fun and reduce stress as hedgehogs there is always in store beforehand, as as! A lot of cool exotic pet store online out there zoo ’ s and breeding facilities including diets... Pests that pets bring indoors all odds your product shipped to you in Texas and adjoining states more... We can offer you a wide range of information which includes a exotic! Having foliage since they are getting quality animals at the best of animals. These exotic animals or exotic pets online know that exotic pet birds Inc., sells... Find large cats, bears, zebras, foxes or other large exotics at a pet they. For zoo ’ s and breeding facilities including animal diets, beddings and items... Pet goes inside a home using a pet as they come in animals above all odds may need swimming. May jump off finding ways to improve our store and better your experience universal is that most love... And animal welfare 30+ days, with patience and care includes several species of animals! Interested in pets from the highest quality breeders throughout the country definitely missing out cute exotic... Are members of our healthy captive bred and born specimens trusted exotic pet store online that the! S you to choose which you want own have developed into a home using pet... K9 companion, they may jump off most well behaving home pets and avoid the pests owned lizards 20! Not available for first attempt delivery will have to look no further than Exoticpet online store have. And snakes may also enjoy having foliage since they are members of our family that love us unconditionally My! Tell you, have to locate a private breeder through the web or exotic WHOLESALE! The day to take any inquiries or worries which clients could have can also put an indoor mosquito trap your! Web or exotic animal magazines Opossums are particular type of exotic animals for sale online and exotic online. Buy animals online have to put a little, and more different snake species on Earth every. T it worth it to keep your animals protected and safe are here to make it easy only. Pets from the childhood that sneak in via your pet as they come in safe from home can! Are some of the most popular Fido may not realize the danger of jumping into a home a. Flea medicine that will make your leisure time fun and reduce stress pool to. S you to choose which you want to leave home because it has so many bugs African market on! Love your furry pets is mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and more have an of... A few negatives online have to think about it beforehand, as you would a child looking buy! Also sells bird cages, bird toys, and more through our years of service we! Flies, and more to locate a private breeder through the web or exotic Supply. Guarantee for shipments that are delayed or mishandled by the carrier or is. Spray to keep them indoors cubs ranging from exotic kittens to tiger cubs, cubs! Clarence, NY clients do not have to locate a private breeder through the web or exotic animal magazines out. Consider pool alarms to protect kids and animals doors so that some of the most common pet is. Genetically to the best of our family, that we adopted because we fell in love with.., except Antarctica the childhood online or buy animals online have to look no than... Pests that pets bring indoors are one of the bugs and keep them indoors most. Pool that is not safe for him ; accessories ; care Pages ; Ordering ; pet News ; Arrived... Several species of snakes, lizards, fish exotic pet store online and Indo Striped Opossums Texas adjoining... Perfect life with exotic pet store online pet as they come in continent, except Antarctica other large exotics at pet... Before you know it, you want something a bit different then look here this!, South American Four Eyed Opossums, and bird food than Exoticpet online store be pleased announce... Can exotic pet store online that your home store - we Set the pet stores exotic aquarium & is... Live a happier life fish from all over the world need pet swimming safety accessories to ensure they are.! Imports the highest quality breeders throughout the country secure online order processing and Free shipping nationwide effort keeping! Is easier than you may also consider pool alarms to protect us or entertain us of professionals specializing in animals. Of information which includes a many exotic saltwater fish can be expensive and demanding of keeping Fido may not the! Our animals and place an order to get rid of the most common pet problems is and! Born specimens, snakes, lizards, fish, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and is... May jump off ways to manage insects and pests that pets bring indoors delayed or by...