The coastal area is almost totally rainless, yet its air is almost always at or near the saturation point. The plains and the dunes of the Inner Namib support large numbers of several varieties of antelope, especially gemsbok (oryx) and springbok, as well as ostriches and some zebras. The Swakop and the Omaruru are the only rivers that occasionally drain into the ocean. Immense territoire (1 224 297 km 2 ) compris entre le 18 e et le 33 e  parallèle sud, la République d'Afrique du Sud couvre un espace marqué par des inégalités de toutes natures. The Namib Desert is one of the world’s only truly coastal desert ecosystem. 35 . Soils that do occur are often highly saline, impregnated with gypsum, or cemented firmly by calcium carbonate, the latter forming a calcrete layer just below the surface. Recent … Bien que l'on trouve de vastes étendues de sable brun, sans aucun cours d'eau ou lac permanent, dans le désert du Kalahari, il y pleut souvent. Some of the world's tallest sand dunes (over 300m) are found in the Namib Desert. Lire la suite. Omissions? Annual precipitation here ranges from 0.079 in to 7.9 in. 2  The Namib ranges in temperature from below 32 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit (zero to 60 degrees Celsius) and is almost completely devoid of surface water. The shore area is densely populated by marine birds—notably flamingos, pelicans, and, in the southern part, penguins—as well as a few jackals, some rodents, and a few colonies of seals. A portion of the water of major streams seeps through the sands of the streambeds. It reaches inland 80 to 100 miles (130 to 160 km) to the foot of the Great Escarpment. south transect of sites from the Namib Desert. It has less than 10 mm (0.39 in) of rain annually and is almost completely barren. Large quantities of guano are scraped annually from the rocks of several offshore islands. Temperatures can reach as high as 60°C during the day and below 0°C at night; some areas receive less than 10mm of rain each year. The Namib Desert is one of the world's oldest deserts, known for its geological variability and diverse arid-adapted biota. Lire la suite, Le désert aride et semi-aride du Kalahari est une vaste plaine en forme de bassin située sur le plateau intérieur de l'Afrique méridionale. Climate Travel & History As you can see on these graphs, the temperature and precipitation of Toronto and the Namib Desert are very different. Recent … La température descend parfois au-dessous de 0 0C le long de la limite orientale du désert. The sand-sea lies under the subtropical high pressure belt which inhibits rainfall so that its climate is hyper-arid, but one overlaid by coastal fog for almost half the year and harried by strong winds. Namibia, formerly South-West Africa, has a sub-tropical climate, desert along the coast and in the south, and arid, but with a rainy season from November to March, in inland north-central areas and in the north-east. Global warming, climatic suitability, range shift, niche modeling, southern Africa . andré > fersen Sherkann. On both sides of the Kuiseb Valley, the Namib coastal desert, which is less known than the chiloperuvian desert, shows a strong contrast between the southern erg which is made up of three dune systems (barchan, linear and star dunes), the age of which, while increasing eastwards, is regarded as Pleistocene, and a northern reg the coarse débris of which suffer active salt weathering and eolian corrasion. Sonoran - light winter rains and heavier summer rain (bimodal)! Product #: gm1140786875 $ 12.00 iStock In stock Professor of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles. Our approach to detect population responses to climate change could be extensively adopted for selecting sentinel species in other regions and ecosystems. The Namib Desert is nested within the ‘Namib’ biogeographical province of Udvardy (1975) and the ‘Namib Desert’ unit of White (1983), with the eastern boundary taken from the 100 mm rainfall isohyet. Also defined by warm, sunny winter days and cold evenings and summer rains with hot, dry days. Other than larger feet and the ability to survive on less water; what other facts make these elephants different? Varieties of aloe are common throughout … Then some 5 million years ago, the climate reverted to the desert conditions found in the Namib today, allowing the formation of a new sand sea. Lichen can not repair itself very easily For example, Irrigation is used for agriculture causing a low salt level which does It stretches for over 2,000 km along the Atlantic Ocean coast of Angola, Namibia, and South Africa. In its brutal and inhospitable environment, temperatures can range from searingly hot to bitterly cold within 24 hours. Some parts average just 2mm/0.08in of rain a year. The maximum temperature diagram for Sossusvlei displays how many days per month reach certain temperatures. During … Les paysages namibiens sont, avant tout, caractérisés par la sécheresse. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Arid Climate photos available for quick and easy download. The extreme southern coastal area consists of wind-scoured bedrock and a few rapidly moving crescent-shaped barchans (i.e., dunes convex to the wind). Arable soils in the Namib are limited to floodplains and the terraces of major rivers and are subject to occasional inundation. A curious Namib plant is the tumboa, or welwitschia (Welwitschia mirabilis), whose two gigantic leaves sprawl over the surface of the ground from the crest of its huge root crown (see Welwitschiaceae). Reply ↓ Betty Post author 6 mars 2019 at 15 h 11 min. Desert Climate! Parts of the Namib rival South America’s Atacama Desert as the driest place on Earth. The coastal regions have a steady temperature throughout the day and seasons of 9-20C.The wind blows inland pushing moisture ladened air from the sea inland forming thick fog and providing plants and wildlife with a rare reliable water source. Temperatures are usually between 50 and 60 °F (10 and 16 °C). Cold moist air from the Benguela current is carried east by the diurnal sea breeze, condenses overnight inland as radiation fog, and returns to the coast with the land breeze in the form of the morning fog condensation of which sustains the desert's life. The Namibian landscape consists generally of five geographical areas, each with characteristic abiotic conditions and vegetation with some variation within and overlap between them: the Central Plateau, the Namib Desert, the Great Escarpment, the Bushveld, and the Kalahari Desert. Lixin Wang, left, and a colleague conduct water research in the Namib desert. Climate Travel & History As you can see on these graphs, the temperature and precipitation of Toronto and the Namib Desert are very different. The coastal area is almost totally rainless, yet its air is almost always at or near the saturation point. 33 . This makes welwitschia a suitable sentinel for climate change effect in the Namib Desert ecosystems. Other areas are covered with shifting sand. As a result, the Namib receives an average annual rainfall of only 2.5cm (1in). Note: In tropical climates like in Malaysia or Indonesia the number of precipitation days may be overestimated by a factor up to 2. Climate change represents an important threat to global biodiversity and African ecosystems are particularly vulnerable. 3  Test your knowledge. Temperatures can reach as high as 60°C during the day and below 0°C at night; some areas receive less than 10mm of rain each year. Weather forecast for Namib Desert Lodge, Gondwana Collection, Namibia: current Namib Desert Lodge weather conditions, 7-day weather outlook with rain forecast, winds, minimum and maximum temperatures (highs and lows). The Namib is divided into three successive north–south-trending strips: the very narrow coastal region along the Atlantic, strongly subject to marine influences; the Outer Namib, occupying the rest of the western half of the desert; and the Inner Namib, constituting the eastern portion. Other than larger feet and the ability to survive on less water; what other facts make these elephants different? Paleoclimates; Visitors. Sossusvlei itself is a clay pan - set amid huge piles of sand known as star dunes - in the central Namib Desert, and lies within the Namib-Naukluft National Park, Namibia. Daytime temperatures are hot (extremely hot in summer) and nights are cold, some areas frequently go below freezing in winter. Contact; Welcome to Gobabeb! La rosée est néanmoins dense et pour certaines espèces végétales est plus utile que la pluie. Along the inland margins, summer temperatures normally reach the upper 80s F (low 30s C). The diverse landscapes and wildlife of the Namib desert, Namibia. The Namib Desert is a coastal desert primarily located in Namibia, Africa, and is one of the largest coastal deserts in the world, according to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Namib experiences less than 1cm of rain annually and is almost entirely barren. Updates? The northern limit is at the Huab River, which a geographic boundary (Giess 1971) between the summer rainfall (northern) and winter rainfall (southern) deserts along this coastline. The Namib desert is the oldest and one of the driest in the world. Mostly, Namibia has a subtropical desert climate characterized by great differences in day and nighttime temperatures, low rainfall and overall low humidity. 34 . Chihuahuan - only summer rain (subtropical!)! The northern third—the Kaokoveld region—consists of gravel plains and rock platforms occurring between scattered rugged mountains, interspersed with a few large dune fields. Namib is a desert found in the coastal parts of South Africa. The Namib Desert spans part of the west coast of southern Africa; it touches part of the countries of Angola, Namibia, and South Africa. Weather forecast for Namib Desert Lodge, Gondwana Collection, Namibia: current Namib Desert Lodge weather conditions, 7-day weather outlook with rain forecast, winds, minimum and maximum temperatures (highs and lows). It is important because of the trade routes that cross it, its mineral deposits, the fisheries of the bordering sea, and its increasing utilization for recreational purposes. The climate of the Namib is arid to hyper-arid but, especially in coastal areas, relatively cool. Arable soils in the Namib are limited to floodplains and the terraces of major rivers and are subject to occasional inundation. See & … Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Lichen can not repair itself very easily For example, Irrigation is used for agriculture causing a low salt level which does The Namib Desert provided the ethereal landscape for the film’s opening dream scene – Lopez is an angelic, windswept vision as she wanders the dunes trying to communicate with the young victim of a boating accident, lost in the bleak desert of his sub-conscious mind. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Unlike other parts, these two regions can experience frost in the early mornings. Six vegetational regions are found in the Namib: (1) the coastal region, with highly succulent vegetation, which uses moisture derived from the fog, (2) the almost completely barren Outer Namib, (3) the steppes of the Inner Namib, which in many years are barren but which in wet years are covered with short grasses, both annual and perennial, (4) the dunes of the Inner Namib, which produce a surprisingly rich flora of bushes and tall grasses, (5) the larger river channels, along which large trees, particularly acacias, grow, and (6) the southern winter rainfall area, where a succulent bush growth occurs. Read Next. Freezing temperatures occur occasionally along the inner edge of the desert. Dans l'extrémité méridionale, une partie des précipitations hivernales surviennent lors de tempêtes de front qui se déplacent au sud vers la région du Cap. ! Namib means "vast" in the Nama language. The cold Benguela Current flows northward along the coast, chilling the air above it and thus producing fog. Climate. The Gobabeb environment. The boundaries between them consist of broad transition zones. All the species that have adapted to this extreme climate exploit the morning mists to obtain the water they need to survive, the darklings for example have developed a curious system, maintain the body exposed to moisture that condenses, creating micro droplets, at this point they tilt the body and slip into the mouth the water obtained. The station maintains four autographic weather stations throughout the central Namib Desert. Their formation is unusual. Sand dunes surrounding Sossusvlei, the termination of the Tsauchab, an intermittent stream in south-central Namib, Namibia. The Namib biota includes a number of endemic taxa. Moisture-laden westerlies from the warm Atlantic Ocean are cooled when they meet this current. This thesis presents fossil pollen and microcharcoal data during the last 50,000 years from a north-south transect of the Namib Desert. The desert, on the west coast of Southern Africa, is around 55 million years old -- making it the world's oldest desert and the "perfect spot" for his work, Siedentopf, 27, told CNN in an email. Les températures sont généralement comprises entre 10 et 16 0C. Lire la suite, Dans le chapitre « Une géographie « inégale » » Climate. Ensuite, à l […] Sossusvlei, in the southern part of the Namib Desert, is a salt and clay ‘pan’ surrounded by sand dunes. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The rare rains occur usually as short-lived torrential thunderstorms. "Namib" is the Nama word for "vast" - and this desert, stretching for 1,600km along Namibia's coast, is certainly the embodiment of vastness. Due to its unique red sand, Sossusvlei is a must-see for many people when travelling to Africa. The Namib Sand-sea is a coastal fog desert, 50 to150 km wide, which covers most of its southern half, encompassing two immense, complex and visually striking dune systems, one ancient and half lithified, one active and younger overlying it. The climate of the Namib Desert is forged by westerly winds. iStock Dunes In Namib Desert Stock Photo - Download Image Now Download this Dunes In Namib Desert photo now. Namib, Portuguese Namibe, a cool coastal desert extending for 1,200 miles (1,900 km) along the Atlantic coast of Africa from Namibe (formerly Moçâmedes) in Angola southward across Namibia to the Olifants River in the Western Cape province of South Africa. © 2020 Encyclopædia Universalis France.Tous droits de propriété industrielle et intellectuelle réservés. Scattered isolated mountains rise steeply and abruptly above the platform, and in the northern half several streams have carved deep steep-walled gorges into it. The cold Benguela Current flows northward along the coast, chilling the air above it and thus producing fog. A major threat to the Namib Desert is the impact of off road driving. Namib means "vast" in the Nama language. It is also home to variety of small, understudied mammals, including at least 19 species of bats. Due to its altitude of 1700 metres on average (at Windhoek even up to 2000m) this highland has moderate temperatures and average rainfalls. Learn more about the conservation status, plants and animals of the Namib Desert, one of the most fascinating and oldest deserts on earth. Its name is derived from the Nama language, implying “an area where there is nothing.”. The Namib desert is an important location for the mining of tungsten, salt and diamonds. The coastal strip of the desert receives no rainfall despite the air in this region always dancing around the saturation point. Une brise marine venant du sud-ouest déplace cet air froid vers l'intérieur des terres. The dunes of the Outer Namib provide habitats for various types of insects and reptiles, especially beetles, geckos, and snakes, but virtually no mammals. Only in areas sheltered from the cooling sea breeze (lee sides of mountains and bottoms of canyons) do temperatures frequently approach those expected in low-latitude deserts—i.e., in excess of 100 °F (38 °C). Kalahari Desert - Kalahari Desert - Climate: Traditionally, an area was classed as desert if it received less than 10 inches (250 millimetres) of rain annually. Bonjour André ! Tout d'abord, la chaîne du Drakensberg et les reliefs qui la prolongent jusque dans l'arrière-pays du Cap constituent la limite entre l'Ouest sec et peu peuplé et l'Est bien arrosé et plus densément occupé. The cold Benguela Current, which dominates the northern parts of the coast, is responsible for cooling the air in this region, resulting in dense fog. The desert’s surface area is 80,900 square kilometers, and it extends inland from the Atlantic Ocean to cover parts of Angola and South Africa as well. La neige tombe en de rares occasions sur les [...], 1  Strangely, whilst the region is virtually rainless, its air is typically at or near to saturation point, and fog is very common. See & Do 14 Life-Changing Experiences You Can Only Have in Namibia. Existing for at least 55 million years, the Namib is one of the oldest deserts in the world. The Namib has been dry for at least 55 million years, and possibly as many as 80 million. Le courant froid de Benguela combine ses effets à ceux de […] The Namib is arid and is almost totally uninhabited, except for a small number of scattered towns. Climate. Media. Namibia experiences winter and summer at opposite times as Europe and North America and they correspond to the Dry and Wet seasons. The climate is similar across these two regions. In the Nama language, ‘sossus’ translates as a dead end or place of no return, while in Afrikaans the word ‘vlei’ refers to a shallow lake or marsh. Le Kalahari mesure, dans sa plus grande lo […] This causes to release their over the sea. On the west of this collection of mountain ranges, and the last of the geographical zones, is the Namib desert. …pour nos abonnés, l’article se compose de 5 pages, Désert du NamibCrédits : Phil Degginger/ Getty Images, Végétation dans le NamibCrédits : A. Bannister from the Natural History Photographic Agency, Dans le chapitre « Les paysages » author/funder. A major threat to the Namib Desert is the impact of off road driving. Other streams have surface flow only after heavy rainfall in the interior plateaus; they normally flow for no more than a few days in several years. Namib’s climate is as interesting as it is contradictory. Inscrivez-vous à notre newsletter hebdomadaire et recevez en cadeau un ebook au choix ! In much of the southern half of the desert the platform is surmounted by a vast expanse of sand—yellow-gray near the coast and brick red inland—which is derived from the Orange River and from other rivers that flow westward from the escarpment but never reach the sea. Il couvre une grande partie du Botswana, le tiers oriental de la Namibie et l'extrémité septentrionale de la province du Cap-Nord en Afrique du Sud. variation in seasonality of precipitation! variation in seasonality of precipitation! Then some 5 million years ago, the climate reverted to the desert conditions found in the Namib today, allowing the formation of a new sand sea. The desert basically consists of a relatively smooth platform of truncated bedrock of various types and ages. Maximum temperatures . What is the largest desert in the world? This causes to release their over the sea. In the extreme south, some winter precipitation occurs from frontal storms passing farther south over the Cape region; on rare occasions, snow may fall on the higher southern mountains. Les rares pluies tombent en général sous la forme de brefs orages torrentiels. Endless expanses of bare rock and dunes. Sossusvlei itself is a clay pan - set amid huge piles of sand known as star dunes - in the central Namib Desert, and lies within the Namib-Naukluft National Park, Namibia. A more accurate definition of a desert is a region in which the potential evaporation rate is twice as great as the precipitation. Trees are much more frequent in the north. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Climate research; Learning. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sonoran - light winter rains and heavier summer rain (bimodal)! Elephants, rhinoceroses, lions, hyenas, and jackals are found in the northern Namib, especially along the rivers that flow from the interior highlands to the Atlantic. While Reykjavík on Iceland has mostly cloudy days, Sossusvlei in the Namib desert is one of the sunniest places on earth. ! Some of the world's tallest sand dunes (over 300m) are found in the Namib Desert. It damages lichen fields because they are very fragile and can sustain damage easily. Mojave !Namib (Skeleton coast) Desert Climate!! Between the Kalahari in the east and the Namib Desert in the west lies the Namibian central highland with the capital Windhoek in its centre. Although the desert only has an average yearly rainfall of less than 1cm, fog is actually very common. As a result, the Namib receives an average annual rainfall of only 2.5cm (1in). A few days each year, usually in fall or spring, berg (mountain) winds blowing from the east bring high temperatures (above 100 °F), together with dry air and clouds of dust, across the desert to the coast itself. Gobabeb maintains a thirty year weather record, and the daily weather readings are used by the national meteorological services, by flights and navigation of ships on the west coast, as well as for global climate monitoring. The troughs between these lines of dunes are interrupted by smaller transverse dunes. The most arid parts of this sandy expanse receive an average of just 2-5mm of rainfall a year, which would manke you think that this is 1,600km of nothing - yet even here, in one of the planet's most extreme wildernesses, life perseveres . Mojave !Namib (Skeleton coast) Desert Climate!! Our approach to detect population responses to climate change could be extensively adopted for selecting sentinel species in other regions and ecosystems. Sand dunes and vegetation at Sossusvlei in the Namib desert, Namibia. 4  The dry climate of the Namib reflects the almost complete lack of bodies of water on the surface. Dans les zones de transition à l'intérieur des terres, les températures estivales atteignent normalement près de 30 0C. This cool air moves inland as a southwest sea breeze, creating a temperature inversion about 1,000 feet (300 metres) thick, with fog below and hot, dry air above. In some years, however, no rain falls at all. Namib, Atacama - only fog, no rain! Fog consists of tiny droplets of water suspended in air; dew is water that forms on the surfaces of plants, soil and other objects on the ground. Élargissez votre recherche dans Universalis. Namib, Atacama - only fog, no rain! Apparaît alors une zone d'inversion de température d'environ 300 mètres d'épaisseur, caractérisée par du brouillard dans la partie inférieure et un air chaud et sec dans la partie supérieure. Being an almost rainless area, the Namib has a poorly developed and fragmentary drainage pattern. News. 2. The Namib's aridity is caused by the descent of dry air of the Hadley Cell, cooled by the cold Benguela current along the coast. That knowledge can help them assess how plants and animals function in current and possible future climates. https://www.universalis.fr/encyclopedie/namib/, dictionnaire de l'Encyclopædia Universalis. The Namib desert is cold while Toronto is warm and the average precipitation between the two are also different. Namib’s climate is as interesting as it is contradictory. Le courant froid de Benguela, prolongation du courant circum-antarctique, remonte vers le nord en longeant la côte, refroidissant l'air et produisant ainsi du brouillard. The country is crossed by the Tropic of Capricorn, but a cold current, called Benguela Current, flows along the coast, while the interior is occupied by a plateau. The Namib Desert in southwest Africa stretches along 1,000 km of the Namibian coast and some180 km inland. The platform rises gradually from the coast to about 3,000 feet (900 metres) at the foot of the Great Escarpment. Mica-schist and other metamorphics and granite and similar intrusives predominate. Climate of the Namib Desert. Only the Cunene (Kunene) and Orange rivers flow permanently on the surface. Keywords . The Namib Desert is southern Africa is a coastal desert. Existing for at least 55 million years, the Namib is one of the oldest deserts in the world. The mountains are sparsely wooded, and the plateau is predominantly scrub bush and grass. Gobabeb also is situated on the ecotone between fog and rain precipitation, enhancing further Gobabeb's unique capacity for desert research. Given the importance of fog and dew in this desert, Wang said, the Namib serves as an ideal location to study non-rainfall water. Desert Climate! The arid environment of the Namib precludes the development of permanent wetlands, and as a result few palaeoenvironmental records exist from the region. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Africa photos available for quick and easy download. The southern portion merges with the Kalahari on the plateau atop the escarpment. The average day temperatures lie at 30° C in January to 20° C in July and between 17° C in January and 7° C in June at night. Geographically the Gamsberg forms the highest elevation of the Great Escarpment in the north – south direction between the highland and the Namib Desert. Parfois, il ne pleut pas pendant une année complète. At the coast there is little difference in temperature between day and night or between winter and summer. This image of the Namib Desert in Western Namibia shows the dark orange of brown colours of the desert, a desert which at 55 Million years old is the oldest desert in the world. Flowing north from the waters of the Antarctic is the powerful but cold Benguela Current. Until the end of the 1st decade of the twenty-first century, very little was known of the microbiology of this southwestern African desert, with the few reported studies being based solely on culture-dependent approaches. 5 The dunes run in lines from north-northwest to south-southeast, individual dunes having lengths of 10 to 20 miles (16 to 32 km) and reaching heights of 200 to 800 feet (60 to 240 metres). Fog and, to a lesser degree, dew are crucial sources of moisture in the Namib Desert. Geographically the Gamsberg forms the highest elevation of the Great Escarpment in the north – south direction between the highland and the Namib Desert. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Chaque année, pendant quelques jours, habituellement en automne ou au printemps, les vents qui soufflent depuis les montagnes de l'Est apportent des températures élevées (supérieures à 40 0 C), accompagnées d'un air sec et de nuages de poussière, dans tout le désert et jusque sur la côte. As most of Namibia is covered by desert it is unsurprising that the climate is exactly what you would expect from a desert country. Ils sont séparés par un plateau central dont l'altitude est comprise entre 1000 et 2000m. The coastal strip of the desert receives no rainfall despite the air in this region always dancing around the saturation point. Mojave - winter rains (Mediterranean!)! Add to Plan. Internships. URL : https://www.universalis.fr/encyclopedie/namib/, Encyclopædia Universalis - Contact - Mentions légales - Consentement RGPD, Consulter le dictionnaire de l'Encyclopædia Universalis. Give us feedback . 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