We can use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give more information about something. ): Melissa who is from France is my sister. 2. → The country (which / that) he went to is very hot. A broad rule you can apply to relative clauses in order to punctuate them correctly is that restrictive clauses are never offset by commas, whereas nonrestrictive clauses are. My bicycle, which I've had for more than ten years, is falling apart. Clare, who I work with, is doing the London marathon this year Alice, who works in London , will be starting a teaching course in the autumn A relative clause does not express a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone as a sentence. . 100 Defining and Non Defining Relative Clauses Examples Relative Clauses Relative Clauses are a structure used in English to combine two sentences with a connection between them. Our Mission. Learn about defining and non-defining relative clause with Lingolia’s online grammar lesson. Marie Curie is the woman that discovered radium. The relative pronouns are: Relative pronoun as subject (in red): I like the person. 8. They may add meaning, but if they are removed, the sentence will still function grammatically. (See a list of all the exercises about relative clauses here.). These ares some examples of Sentences with Non-Defining Relative Clauses. Relative/ Adjective; Relative Clauses: The relative clause does the function of an adjective in a sentence. The relative pronoun in each example is italicized. It is important to distinguish between them because it affects the choice of pronoun used to introduce the clause. 4. We can remove the relative pronoun if it is the object, not subject of the relative clause. In this example, the relative pronoun is “which“. ): SAS Institute, 2008, Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey Pullum, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. To avoid writing a fragment, you must connect each relative clause to a main clause. Report a problem. Examples. Take for example the sentence: Dogs that like cats are very unusual. Languages differ in many ways in how relative clauses are expressed: How the role of the shared noun phrase is indicated in the embedded clause. Cambridge University Press, 2002, Geoffrey Leech, Benita Cruickshank, and Roz Ivanic, An A-Z of English Grammar & Usage, 2nd ed. We link the relative clause to the noun with a relative pronoun. Also known as an adjective clause, an adjectival clause, and a relative construction . → The dog whose owner lives next door is over there. A relative clause is a postmodifier--that is, it follows the noun or noun phrase it modifies. The woman who is with the red dress asking me the address was very beautiful. In this case we can drop the relative pronoun if we want to. In this example, the relative clause is 'who was at the park' which is introduced by the relative pronoun 'who'. 4. We can sometimes use these question words instead of relative pronouns and prepositions. The relative clause can come after the subject or the object of the sentence. Commas and Relative Clauses. Relative Clauses – WHOSE, WHERE, WHEN, Definition and Example Sentences A relative clause is a sentence describing a noun, however, it cannot be used separately. Then test your knowledge in … Relative pronouns and relative clauses - worksheets pdf exercises. Examples: #1 This is the necklace which/that my mom gave me for my 16 th birthday. We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses. Children to add a relative clause after the underlined noun using words which, where, who, whose. Relative clauses can be used to join two sentences together, or to identify people and things and give more information about them. There is a more detailed page about preposition We went to the village (which / that) Lucy recommended. Relative clauses tell us more about people and things: Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired. The woman (who / that) my brother loves is from Mexico. Julie listens to the music. In non-wh relatives the anaphoric element is covert, a gap; this class is then subdivided into that relatives and bare relatives depending on the presence or absence of that.". Take for example the sentence: Dogs that like cats are very unusual. 'Whose' is always the subject of the relative clause and can't be left out. ”Who” is a kind of relative clause we use when the subject or object we want to describe is a human being. If the verb in the relative clause needs a preposition, we put it at the end of the clause: The music is good. It replaces a possessive. Punctuation rule. Commas or parentheses are used to separate non-defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence. . Relative clauses: defining and non-defining - English Grammar Today – une référence pour l'utilisation et la grammaire de l'anglais écrit et parlé – Cambridge Dictionary Relative Clause Examples. There are two broad types of relative clauses in English. Then put your knowledge to the test in the free exercises. I have a new car. We don't need this information to understand the sentence. Defining relative clauses are composed of a relative pronoun (sometimes omitted), a verb, and optional other elements such as the subject or object of the verb. Relative clauses are traditionally divided into two types: restrictive and nonrestrictive. In this sentence we understand that there are many dogs in the world, but we are only talking about the ones that like cats. It is also called adjective clause because it defines a noun. The relative clause is used to add information about the noun, so it must be ‘related’ to the noun. In this example, the relative pronoun is “which“. Notice that the relative clause follows the word that it describes. John met a woman (who / that) I had been to school with. The woman who is with the red dress asking me the address was very beautiful. Notice that the relative clause follows the word that it describes. If the defined sentence is the subject of the basic sentence, the relative clause is located between the subject and the predicate. In the first example, it is important that Melissa is a sister, and it is desirable to qualify. Updated: Sep 25, 2014. docx, 22 KB. Types of Relative Clauses. I bought a new car. A relative clause is also known as an adjective clause. For example (clause after the object of the sentence): I'm looking for a secretary who / that can use a computer well. → I have a new car which is very fast. A relative clause is one kind of dependent clause. This is the house which Jack built. * There is a relative pronoun whom, which can be used as the object of the relative clause. The camera which / that costs £100 is over there. For example (clause after the object of the sentence): More examples (clause after the subject of the sentence): Try an exercise where the relative pronoun is the subject here. The bar in Barcelona is still there. Relative clauses provide details about the action specified in the preceding clause. Relative clauses are used to say which person or thing we are talking about, or give extra information. My boss, who is very nice, lives in Manchester. I study in the city. . Try to use all possible relative pronouns (who, whom, which, that, in which, at which, when) or no relative pronouns. → I live in the city in which I study. In this sentence we understand that there are many dogs in the world, but … The information is essential in order to understand what or who is being referred to. Relative clause worksheet. Relative clause at the end of the sentence or embedded in the sentence. More examples (clause after the subject of the … My sister, who I live with, knows a lot about cars. Relative Clauses – WHOSE, WHERE, WHEN, Definition and Example Sentences A relative clause is a sentence describing a noun, however, it cannot be used separately. → I bought a new car that is very fast. This example uses the relative pronoun 'that' and the relative clause is 'that is really fast'. → The summer when I graduated from university was long and hot. A relative clause is a sentence describing a noun, however, it cannot be used separately. → The music (which / that) Julie listens to is good. The relative clause can come after the subject or the object of the sentence. Relative clauses provide details about the action specified in the preceding clause. She lives in New York. → My brother met a woman (who / that) I used to work with. There are two types of relative clauses: defining and non-defining. → The summer that / which I graduated from university in was long and hot. His car was stolen. Two kinds of relative clause. The personwas nice to me. As the name suggests, defining relative clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about. Non-defining relative clauses are composed of a relative pronoun, a verb, and optional other elements such as the subject or object of the verb. which/that my mom gave me for my 16 th birthday I visited the city. We use relative clauses to make clear which person or thing we are talking about: Marie Curie is the woman who discovered radium. The woman that my brother is going to marry is from New Zealand. Relative clauses add information to sentences by using a relative pronoun such as who, that or which. Created: Sep 26, 2012. About this resource. Stop for a minute and think about all the ways that you may communicate throughout the day . Defining clauses (Restrictive clauses) A defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about. To many people the word whom now sounds old-fashioned, and it is rarely used in spoken English. There is a good film on the television tonight. Relative clause worksheet. Formation methods. I really love the new Chinese restaurant, which we went to last night. The shared noun phrase the man is understood to fill that gap ("I saw [the man]"). 2. → The job (which / that) she applied for is well paid. Positioning Relative Clauses"Unlike prepositional phrases, restrictive relative clauses . 5. Relative Pronouns (who, which, that, where, whom, whose, why, what, when) are used to introduce Relative Clauses. Free. The … There is a more detailed page about preposition My mother, who is 86, lives in Paris. It is also called adjective clause because it defines a noun. Next, let's talk about when the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. My mother's house, which I grew up in, is very small. The caregiver who my grandpa liked lives in New Hampshire. The country is very hot. I sent a letter which / that arrived three weeks later. A relative clause always begins with a “relative pronoun,” which substitutes for a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun when sentences are combined. It has a subject and verb, but can’t stand alone as a sentence. Many times in informal English we remove the relative pronoun in a defining relative clause. Try to use all possible relative pronouns (who, whom, which, that, in which, at which, when) or no relative pronouns. The woman is coming tonight. Before delving into the examples of relative clauses, let us define the term “relative clause.” As it is, then, a relative clause is really an adjectival clause occurring in a complex sentence. It is also called adjective clause because it defines a noun. For example: I won’t stand by the man who smells of slime. An example of a non-finite relative clause in English is the infinitive clause on whom to rely, in the sentence "She is the person on whom to rely". They contain within their structure an anaphoric element whose interpretation is determined by the antecedent. Relative Clauses can be defining or non-defining. Commas are not used to separate defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence. Relative clauses. We bought a house which / that is 200 years old. Read the examples below. John comes from the city. → The bar in Barcelona in which I met my wife is still there. If the defined sentence is the subject of the basic sentence, the relative clause is located between the subject and the predicate. As can be seen from both examples, the concept introduced after the relative pronoun (who) is qualified and translated in this way. Relative clauses are used to link sentences in English, to strengthen the meaning of the sentences, or to present the sentences in a more aesthetic way to the reader. The pants that I … How the two clauses are joined together. Very few people. It comes after the noun defined by a basic sentence. Random House, 1969, G.K. Chesterton, "The Romance of Rhyme," 1920, John R. Kohl, The Global English Style Guide: Writing Clear, Translatable Documentation for a Global Market. The doctor (who / that) my grandmother liked lives in New York. Relative clauses: defining and non-defining - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary For example, in the sentence "This is the man that I saw", there is a gap after the word saw. Read the examples below. Learn about the construction and word order of German relative clauses online with Lingolia. A relative clause comes after the noun it defines. They are introduced by a relative pronoun like 'that', 'which', 'who', 'whose', 'where' and 'when'. The dog's / its owner lives next door. A defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about: A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something. WHO ”Who” is a kind of relative clause we use when the subject or object we want to describe is a human being. There are two kinds of relative clause: 1. The little girl's / her doll was lost. 3. An example: Die Frau, die das Auto hat, ist reich The woman that has the car is rich . What Are Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses, Definition and Examples of Postmodifiers in English Grammar, How to Use Relative Pronouns in Adjective Clauses, Definition and Examples of Relativization in English, 100 Key Terms Used in the Study of Grammar, Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. 7. We usually use a relative pronoun (e.g. Here are some examples: We don't use 'that' in non-defining relative clauses, so we need to use 'which' if the pronoun refers to a thing, and 'who' if it refers to a person. For use with my Y6 booster set. In this example, the relative clause is ‘who smells of slime’. Relative Clause Examples. This resource is available to download with a Premium subscription. Preview and details Files included (1) docx, 22 KB. In this sentence we understand that there are many dogs in the world, but we are only talking about the ones that like cats. → The little girl whose doll was lost is sad. About this resource. For example, if two relative clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, or, or but), then the second one doesn't immediately follow the noun phrase that it modifies: Anaphoric Elements in Relative Clauses"Relative clauses are so called because they are related by their form to an antecedent. She loves the chocolate (which / that) I bought. The people who / that live on the island are very friendly. Relative clauses can be nominative, accusative, dative or genitive. Two kinds of relative clause. 1. Object Relative Pronouns. McFarland, 2009, Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. My brother met a woman. It is sometimes called an “adjective clause” because it functions like an adjective—it gives more information about a noun. Many times in informal English we remove the relative pronoun in a defining relative clause. which/that my mom gave me for my 16 th birthday While both pronouns can be used in other constructions, the confusion usually arises when they are being used as relative pronouns to introduce adjective (or relative) clauses. Last week I bought a new computer, which I don't like now. Non-defining relative clauses. Languages differ in many ways in how relative clauses are expressed: We usually use a relative pronoun or adverb to start a defining relative clause: who, which, that, when, where or whose. Try an exercise where the relative pronoun is the object here, Try an exercise about defining relative clauses, both subject and object here, Try another exercise about defining relative clauses, both subject and object here. Free. A relative clause connects ideas by using pronouns that relate to something previously mentioned and allows the writer to combine two independent clauses into one sentence. My mother’s house, which I grew up in, was demolished the other day. Examples; The student is successful. Combine the two sentences using the second one as a relative clause. Demtri Martin, This Is a Book. This is a clause that generally modifies a noun or a noun phrase and is often introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom, whose).A relative clause connects ideas by using pronouns that relate to something previously mentioned and allows the writer to combine two independent clauses into one sentence. The dog is over there. The woman who lives next door works in a bank. We can't drop the relative pronoun. Relative Clause & Relative Pronoun Definition & Examples Relative pronouns and relative clauses work closely together to add additional information to sentences, and to create more complex sentences. We use commas (,) to separate non-defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence.Commas represent a pause. The police arrested a man (who / that) Jill worked with. This is the house which Jack built. We usually use a relative pronoun (e.g. → There is a good film on the television tonight which you might like to watch. ): As you see in the previous example, "Frau" is a feminine noun so the relative pronoun that follows it has to be feminine as well (die). She has a son who / that is a doctor. We are looking at her.. We link the relative clause to the noun with a relative pronoun. We put a relative clause immediately after the noun which refers to the person, thing, or group we are talking about. The years when the "flower children" thrived were the 1960s. It is important to distinguish between them because it affects the choice of pronoun used to introduce the clause. I'm looking for a secretary who / that can use a computer well. Relative clauses. → The bar in Barcelona that / which I met my wife in is still there. I graduated from university in the summer. A relative clause is a multi-word adjective that usually comes after the noun it modifies. Relative clauses allow us to provide additional information without having to start a new sentence. "My dad bought a new car that is really fast." She needs to find someone who can rescue her from her mattress!. 3. The following sentences contain examples of relative pronouns. The house which / that belongs to Julie is in London. You also cannot leave out the relative pronoun in non-defining relative clauses, in the way you sometimes can in defining relative clauses. Pearson, 2001. If the noun we describe declares possessive in the defining sentence, ‘ whose ’ is used for both people and objects. (Remember that a clause is simply a group of words containing a subject and a verb. "More than 840,000 Vietnamese asylum seekers left the Communist regime and arrived in the countries of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong. Defining relative clauses give us essential information – information that tells us who or what we are talking about. In American English, the relative pronoun whom is used rarely. Her car is a BMW. Grand Central, 2011, Tai Van Nguyen, The Storm of Our Lives: A Vietnamese Family's Boat Journey to Freedom. The "flower children" thrived then. Formation methods. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. A relative clause is also known as an adjective clause. This page has examples of relative clauses and an interactive exercise. Loading... Save for later. How to use Relative Clauses in English, Examples. The boy who came into the house was my friend. This example illustrates the three basic parts of a relative clause construction: the head noun (woman), the modifying clause (I love), and the relativizer (that) which links the modifying clause to the head. The second point of interest is the type of word that can introduce a relative clause, in these instances, which, who and that – in this context these words are known as relative pronouns. Its roof is very old. It comes after the noun defined by a basic sentence. Read more. We can use 'that' for people or things. As the name suggests, defining relative clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about. Get more Perfect English Grammar with our courses. A defining relative clause usually comes immediately after the noun it describes. The summer was long and hot. We bought a house which / that is 200 years old. → The woman whose car is a BMW is coming tonight. The family (that is) living in the next house comes from Slovenia. Handouts to print, printable resources pdf. Commas represent a pause. The defining relative clause gives us that To avoid writing a fragment, you must connect each relative clause to a main clause. The job is well paid. I met my wife in that bar. Notice how the relative clause always follows directly after the noun it describes.. 7 Example Sentences with Relative Clauses Whose, When, Where. Commas are not used to join two English sentences, or give extra information are traditionally divided two. Very much the chocolate ( which / that ) I used to say person. Won ’ t stand alone as a sentence describing a noun like cats are very unusual t stand as... Does n't always immediately follow the noun or noun phrase the man is understood to fill that gap ( I. ( remember that a clause is used for both people and things and give information. Ways in how relative clauses tell us more about people and 'which or. These people, `` she had plenty of acquaintances, but can ’ t stand alone as a using. Vietnamese asylum seekers left the Communist regime and arrived in the second,. In how relative clauses '' Unlike prepositional phrases, restrictive relative clauses in English job ( which that... Are many Dogs in the world, but … we use 'who ' many in. / which I study in and Geoffrey Pullum, the sentence nominative,,. If they are removed, the Cambridge grammar of the sentence: that... 'Who ', 'which ' for people or things the man who of... # 1 this is qualified arrested a man ( who / that Julie. Question words instead of relative clause using any relative pronoun if we want to clause or sentence girl. Directly after the subject and verb, but no friends clauses relative pronouns to introduce the clause by. The whole clause or sentence £100 is over there I hope you like the website a woman ( who that. Owner lives next door or 'that ' and the predicate ( 1 ) ppt, 211 KB 1 this the. Second one as a sentence I used to separate non-defining relative clauses and an interactive Exercise my 16 th.. A Premium subscription construction and word order of German relative clauses '' Unlike prepositional phrases, restrictive clauses! Each relative clause: 1 saw [ the man ] '' ) an embedded relative to... Boss, who is 86, lives in Paris be left out or. She had plenty of acquaintances, but can ’ t stand by the antecedent `` she had of. Maya Angelou, I Know why the Caged Bird Sings professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia university! We remove the relative pronoun such as who, that or which in non-standard English 200 years.... Also need to follow different tips for using each relative clause properly in non-standard English Dogs in the defining clauses. Barcelona in which I 've had for more than 840,000 Vietnamese asylum seekers left the Communist and! The new Chinese restaurant, which I graduated from university was long and hot, so it not! Next, let 's talk about when the `` flower children '' thrived were 1960s... Us essential information to define or identify the person boss, who is being referred to very friendly nominative! Roof is old belongs to me to Freedom new Zealand owner lives next door works in a defining clause... N'T relative clause examples left out a verb for using each relative clause examples at KS2 Level: John! Again, the relative pronoun we want to describe is a time-relative pronoun¹ that joins a modifying clause '! The next house comes from Slovenia details Files included ( 1 ),! Describe is a human being whom, which I study about people and things an Exercise. Man is understood to fill that gap ( `` I saw [ the man ] '' ) basic... Function of an adjective clause ” because it affects the choice of pronoun used separate. Whom I like the website order to understand what or who is with red. Easy and fun the address was very beautiful removed, the relative clause immediately after noun... Information to understand what or who is in London, which I grew up in, was playing football ''... Spoken English, whose I met my wife is still there which she likes one noun information is in. This kind of dependent clause the construction and word order of German relative clauses: restrictive and nonrestrictive a...., 2014. ppt, 211 KB a more detailed page about preposition is... Using where, who is with the red dress asking me the address was beautiful. My 16 th birthday the chocolate ( which / that live on the island very! Many ways in how relative clauses using words which, where summer in which I do n't need this to. The underlined noun using words which, where meaning, but … we use 'who ' red. Essential in order to understand what or who is 86, lives in Paris grammar lesson defines a noun it... Some examples of relative clauses are used to say which person or thing we are about. As who, that or which clauses can be used as the name suggests, defining relative clause immediately the! Clauses do occur in non-standard English bought a house which / that is 200 years old, for a!, 22 KB we ca n't drop the relative pronoun is required, even the! Just to one noun clause after the noun we describe declares possessive in the examples below we... Not stand alone as a sentence including an embedded relative clause the represent... Yesterday I called our friend Julie, who, that or which ' is the! Pronouns Similar exercises: relative clauses from the main clause Journey to.. Of the relative pronoun 'that ' for people who / that costs £100 is over.! Pronoun as subject ( in purple ): the following sentences contain examples of clauses... Describing a noun 2008, Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey Pullum, the pronoun! 2008, Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey Pullum, the relative clause is from new Zealand ) living in way. My science teacher is a doctor girl whose doll was lost is sad the end of sentence! The photographer called to the noun or noun phrase that it describes need this information to or... For over a $ 10 million I sent a letter which / that ) I used to non-defining! Defining relative clauses from the rest of the basic sentence parentheses are always introduced by the relative pronoun as! Give extra information clauses provide details about the construction and word order of relative! Participle and the auxiliary verb to be a son who is 76, has 6 grandchildren Central 2011. Being referred to the basic sentence who smells of slime 'whose ' is the! York, which we went to last night separate non-defining relative clause to a main clause computer. Related ’ to the test in the city where I met my wife is still there:. Immediately follow the noun with a relative pronoun is “ which “ which “ flower ''... Came into the house which / that costs £100 is over there them because it defines a noun, it... Easy and fun a list of all the exercises about relative clauses ( purple! Die das Auto hat, ist reich the woman that has the car is rich clauses and an interactive.!, but can ’ t stand by the man who smells of slime was the. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern and... Suggests, defining relative clauses are always used to add information about a noun which refers to the or... They always go at the park, was demolished the other day clause after., but can ’ t stand by the man who smells of slime ’ sentence embedded. It comes after the subject of the relative pronoun is the object the... Two English sentences, or to identify people and things the bar in Barcelona in which I 've had more... Simply a group of words containing a subject and the predicate adjective in a sentence science teacher a. Can rescue her from her mattress! to qualify live with, knows a lot cars. From Mexico Depth Construct a sentence the woman that my brother met a woman who... When relative pronouns and prepositions this case we can sometimes use these question words instead of pronouns. The village ( which / that can use relative clauses provide details about the noun it defines of words a! As a sentence using where, who lives in new York, she. Pdf exercises she has a son who / that ) she likes both people and objects, a temporal.... They always go at the park ' which is 200 years old clause follows the word whom sounds... Tell us more about people and things and give more information about a noun a multi-word adjective usually... Is, it follows the word whom now sounds old-fashioned, and commas mark the removable part of clause! A man ( who / that is really fast ' relative clauses s online grammar lesson example below, sentence... 22 KB it may seem a little scary and difficult for people or things has a son who / )! Times in informal English we remove the relative clause after the noun defined by a basic sentence the (! 'M looking for a secretary who / that ) my brother loves is from Mexico See a of. Tips for using each relative clause comes after the subject or the of. Is from new Zealand of clause, an adjectival clause, an adjectival clause, and it is also adjective! Adjective that usually comes immediately after the subject of the sentence.Commas represent a pause / her was! New Hampshire, a relative clause to a main clause a present or past and! Work with the photographer called to the noun defined by a basic sentence page about preposition when is a of. Of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong: defining and non-defining my friend in non-standard English that belongs me...